Quality of Life Research

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 417–425 | Cite as

Quality of life after pulmonary embolism: first cross-cultural evaluation of the pulmonary embolism quality-of-life (PEmb-QoL) questionnaire in a Norwegian cohort

  • Mazdak TavolyEmail author
  • Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen
  • Hilde Skuterud Wik
  • Christina Roaldsnes
  • Per Morten Sandset
  • Waleed Ghanima



The aim of the current study was to translate and test the psychometrical properties of the disease-specific pulmonary embolism quality-of-life questionnaire (PEmb-QoL).


Patients with a prior history of pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified from the thrombosis registry at Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. All eligible patients were asked to complete the generic EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) QoL questionnaire as well as the disease-specific PEmb-QoL at baseline and after 2 weeks. Construct validity was tested using principal component factor analysis. Criterion validity was tested using Spearman’s correlation coefficients (rho) between EQ-5D and PEmb-QoL. Internal consistency reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, while test–retest reliability was calculated using the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC).


A total of 213 participants had complete datasets and were included in further analyses. Factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded six factors explaining 71 % of the cumulative variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.94, indicating a very good intercorrelation of items. Of the 213 participants, 145 (68 %) completed the questionnaire a second time. The ICC ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, indicating good test–retest reliability. All factors were found significant with p values <0.001. The criterion validity of the PEmb-QoL was confirmed through good correlation with other similar health-related quality-of-life constructs in the EQ-5D.


Findings of the current study indicate that Norwegian version of the PEmb-QoL is both valid and reliable, thus representing an important supplement in subjective outcomes measurement among patients sustaining PE.


PEmb-QoL HRQoL Pulmonary embolism Psychometric evaluation Disease-specific questionnaires 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazdak Tavoly
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • Lars-Petter Jelsness-Jørgensen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hilde Skuterud Wik
    • 3
  • Christina Roaldsnes
    • 1
  • Per Morten Sandset
    • 3
    • 5
  • Waleed Ghanima
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Østfold Hospital TrustFredrikstadNorway
  2. 2.Department of MedicineSahlgrenska University HospitalGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of HaematologyOslo University HospitalOsloNorway
  4. 4.Østfold University CollegeFredrikstadNorway
  5. 5.Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

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