Advertisement

Quality of Life Research

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 263–272 | Cite as

Association between body mass index and perceived weight status with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

  • Ramin Heshmat
  • Roya Kelishadi
  • Nazgol Motamed-Gorji
  • Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh
  • Gelayol Ardalan
  • Tahereh Arifirad
  • Hadith Rastad
  • Hamid Asayesh
  • Shirin Djalalinia
  • Bagher Larijani
  • Mostafa QorbaniEmail author
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Adolescent obesity is a well-known worldwide issue with growing prevalence and complications. The concept of body image and complications of its misperception has been noted more recently. Life satisfaction (LS) and self-rated health (SRH) have also been known as independent morbidity and mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of perceived weight status (body image) and actual body mass index (BMI), with LS and SRH in a nationally representative sample of a pediatric population in Iran, as a country located in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Methods

This nationwide population-based survey was conducted among 5,570 (2,784 female and 2,786 male) Iranian students, aged 10–18 years, living in urban and rural areas of 27 provinces, which were selected via multistage sampling method. Agreement between BMI and perceived weight status (underweight, about right and overweight/obesity) was assessed. Adjusted association between BMI and perceived weight status with LS and SRH was assessed using multiple logistic regressions after adjustment for potential confounders.

Results

Nearly 40 % of the participants misperceived their body image. Misperception as overweight or underweight was found to be associated with lower odds for both LS and SRH [overweight SRH OR 0.796 (95 % CI 0.647–980), underweight SRH OR 0.701 (95 % CI 0.588–0.835), overweight LS OR 0.884 (95 % CI 0.718-998), underweight LS OR = 0.676 (95 % CI 0.577–0.793)], whereas the association between actual BMI with LS and SRH was not statistically significant (P value > 0.05).

Conclusion

A mismatch between BMI and body weight perception was found in this study. Moreover, LS and SRH were not related with BMI, but had negative association with body weight perception.

Keywords

Adolescents Self-rated health Life satisfaction Body mass index Perceived weight status 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This nationwide survey was conducted in Iran with corporation of the Ministry of Health and Medical education, Ministry of Education and Training, Child Health Promotion Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, and Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Conflict of interests

The authors declared no conflict of interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Kelishadi, R., Marashinia, F., Heshmat, R., Motlagh, M. E., Qorbani, M., Taslimi, M., et al. (2013). First report on body image and weight control in a nationally representative sample of a pediatric population in the Middle East and North Africa: the CASPIAN-III study. Archives of Medical Science, 9(2), 210–217.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khashayar, P., Heshmat, R., Qorbani, M., Motlagh, M. E., Aminaee, T., Ardalan, G., et al. (2013). Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in a national sample of adolescent population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III study. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2013, 702095.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mehrkash, M., Kelishadi, R., Mohammadian, S., Mousavinasab, F., Qorbani, M., Hashemi, M. E., et al. (2012). Obesity and metabolic syndrome among a representative sample of Iranian adolescents. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 43(3), 756–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baygi, F., Qorbani, M., Dorosty, A. R., Kelishadi, R., Asayesh, H., Rezapour, A., et al. (2013). Dietary predictors of childhood obesity in a representative sample of children in north east of Iran. Zhongguo Dang Dai ErKeZaZhi, 15(7), 501–508.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Standley, R., Sullivan, V., & Wardle, J. (2009). Self-perceived weight in adolescents: Over-estimation or under-estimation? Body Image, 6(1), 56–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31(2), 103–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Forste, R., & Moore, E. (2012). Adolescent obesity and life satisfaction: Perceptions of self, peers, family, and school. Economics & Human Biology, 10(4), 385–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herman, K. M., Hopman, W. M., & Rosenberg, M. W. (2013). Self-rated health and life satisfaction among Canadian adults: Associations of perceived weight status versus BMI. Quality of Life Research, 22, 2693–2705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taylor, V. R. (2000). Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(1), 21–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bailis, D. S., Segall, A., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2003). Two views of self-rated general health status. Social Science & Medicine, 56(2), 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hosseini, M., Maghami, M., Kelishadi, R., Motlagh, M. E., Khoshbin, S., Amirkhani, A., et al. (2013). First report on self-rated health in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-iii study. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(2), 146–152.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Micciolo, R., Canal, L., Minniti, A., Mazzali, G., Fantin, F., Corzato, F., et al. (2013). The association between excess weight and comorbidity and self-rated health in the Italian population. Annals of Epidemiology, 23(4), 172–178.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ball, K., Crawford, D., & Kenardy, J. (2004). Longitudinal relationships among overweight, life satisfaction, and aspirations in young women. Obesity Research, 12(6), 1019–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fonseca, H., Matos, M. G., Guerra, A., & Pedro, J. G. (2009). Are overweight and obese adolescents different from their peers? International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 4(3), 166–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford, E. S., Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., Mokdad, A. H., & Chapman, D. P. (2001). Self-Reported body mass index and health-related quality of life: Findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Obesity Research, 9(1), 21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Okosun, I. S., Choi, S., Matamoros, T., & Dever, G. (2001). Obesity is associated with reduced self-rated general health status: Evidence from a representative sample of white, black, and Hispanic Americans. Preventive Medicine, 32(5), 429–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Imai, K., Gregg, E. W., Chen, Y. J., Zhang, P., Rekeneire, N., & Williamson, D. F. (2008). The association of BMI With functional status and self-rated health in US adults. Obesity, 16(2), 402–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kelishadi, R., Heshmat, R., Motlagh, M. E., Majdzadeh, R., Keramatian, K., Qorbani, M., et al. (2012). Methodology and early findings of the third survey of CASPIAN study: A national school-based Surveillance of students’ high risk behaviors. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(6), 394–401.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kelishadi, R., Majdzadeh, R., Motlagh, M. E., Heshmat, R., Aminaee, T., Ardalan, G., et al. (2012). Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: The Caspian-IV study. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(10), 699–705.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuczmarski, R. J., Ogden, C. L., Grummer-Strawn, L. M., Flegal, K. M., Guo, S. S., Wei, R., et al. (2000). CDC growth charts: United States. Advance Data, 314, 1–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hussin, D. K., Mohammad, I. H., Al-Hamad, H. A., Makboul, G., & Elshazly, M. (2011). Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and obese children 8–12 years old. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 47(4), 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Spruijt-Metz, D., Reynolds, K., Clark, F., Palmer, P. H., et al. (2006). Weight perception and weight-related sociocultural and behavioral factors in Chinese adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 229–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan, A. F., Zhang, G., Wang, M. Q., Stoesen, C. A., & Harris, B. M. (2009). Weight perception and weight control practice in a multiethnic sample of US adolescents. Southern Medical Journal, 102(4), 354–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chung, A. E., Perrin, E. M., & Skinner, A. C. (2013). Accuracy of child and adolescent weight perceptions and their relationships to dieting and exercise behaviors: A NHANES study. Academic Pediatrics, 13(4), 371–378.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Viner, R. M., Haines, M. M., Taylor, S. J., Head, J., Booy, R., & Stansfeld, S. (2006). Body mass, weight control behaviours, weight perception and emotional well being in a multiethnic sample of early adolescents. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 30(10), 1514–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheung, P. C., Ip, P. L., Lam, S. T., & Bibby, H. (2007). A study on body weight perception and weight control behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 13(1), 16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herman, K. M., Sabiston, C. M., Tremblay, A., & Paradis, G. (2013). Self-rated health in children at risk for obesity: Associations of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and BMI. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 11, 543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fernandez-Alonso, A. M., Trabalon-Pastor, M., Vara, C., Chedraui, P., & Perez-Lopez, F. R. (2012). Life satisfaction, loneliness and related factors during female midlife. Maturitas, 72(1), 88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Que, M., Tao, F. B., He, C. Y., Zhang, L. H., & Zhu, P. (2007). Study on the relationship between mental health and overweight, obesity, different sex among junior middle school students. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing XueZaZhi, 28(5), 460–463.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramin Heshmat
    • 1
  • Roya Kelishadi
    • 2
  • Nazgol Motamed-Gorji
    • 3
  • Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh
    • 4
  • Gelayol Ardalan
    • 2
  • Tahereh Arifirad
    • 5
  • Hadith Rastad
    • 7
  • Hamid Asayesh
    • 8
  • Shirin Djalalinia
    • 9
    • 10
  • Bagher Larijani
    • 9
  • Mostafa Qorbani
    • 6
    • 11
    Email author
  1. 1.Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Child Growth and Development Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsAhvaz University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  5. 5.Department of Exercise Physiology, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  6. 6.Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Research Development Center, Arash Women’s HospitalTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Department of Medical EmergenciesQom University of Medical SciencesQomIran
  9. 9.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  10. 10.Development of Research and Technology Center, Deputy of Research and TechnologyMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran
  11. 11.School of MedicineAlborz University of Medical SciencesKarajIran

Personalised recommendations