Quality of Life Research

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 2431–2438 | Cite as

Mapping the content of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) using the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability

  • Carole A. Tucker
  • Reuben Escorpizo
  • Alarcos Cieza
  • Jin Shei Lai
  • Gerold Stucki
  • T. Bedirhan Ustun
  • Nenad Kostanjsek
  • David Cella
  • Christopher B. Forrest



The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) is a US National Institutes of Health initiative that has produced self-reported item banks for physical, mental and social health.


To describe the content of PROMIS at the item level using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).


All PROMIS adult items (publicly available as of 2012) were assigned to relevant ICF concepts. The content of the PROMIS adult item banks was then described using the mapped ICF code descriptors.


The 1,006 items in the PROMIS instruments could all be mapped to ICF concepts at the second level of classification, with the exception of three items of global or general health that mapped across the first-level classification of ICF activity and participation component (d categories). Individual PROMIS item banks mapped from 1 to 5 separate ICF codes indicating one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-one mappings between PROMIS item banks and ICF second-level classification codes. PROMIS supports measurement of the majority of major concepts in the ICF body functions (b) and activity and participation (d) components using PROMIS item banks or subsets of PROMIS items that could, with care, be used to develop customized instruments. Given that the focus of PROMIS is on measurement of person health outcomes, concepts in body structures (s) and some body functions (b), as well as many ICF environmental factor, have minimal coverage in PROMIS.


The PROMIS–ICF mapped items provide a basis for users to evaluate the ICF-related content of specific PROMIS instruments and to select PROMIS instruments in ICF-based measurement applications.


Health PROMIS ICF Self-report Outcomes 



The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is an NIH Common Fund initiative to develop a computerized system measuring PROs in respondents with a wide range of chronic diseases and demographic characteristics. PROMIS II was funded by cooperative agreements with a Statistical Center (Northwestern University, PI: David Cella, PhD, 1U54AR057951), a Technology Center (Northwestern University, PI: Richard C. Gershon, PhD, 1U54AR057943), a Network Center (American Institutes for Research, PI: Susan (San) D. Keller, PhD, 1U54AR057926) and thirteen Primary Research Sites which may include more than one institution (State University of New York, Stony Brook, PIs: Joan E. Broderick, PhD and Arthur A. Stone, PhD, 1U01AR057948; University of Washington, Seattle, PIs: Heidi M. Crane, MD, MPH, Paul K. Crane, MD, MPH and Donald L. Patrick, PhD, 1U01AR057954; University of Washington, Seattle, PIs: Dagmar Amtmann, PhD and Karon Cook, PhD, 1U01AR052171; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, PI: Darren A. DeWalt, MD, MPH, 2U01AR052181; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PI: Christopher B. Forrest, MD, PhD, 1U01AR057956; Stanford University, PI: James F. Fries, MD, 2U01AR052158; Boston University, PIs: Stephen M. Haley, PhD and David Scott Tulsky, PhD (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), 1U01AR057929; University of California, Los Angeles, PIs: Dinesh Khanna, MD and Brennan Spiegel, MD, MSHS, 1U01AR057936; University of Pittsburgh, PI: Paul A. Pilkonis, PhD, 2U01AR052155; Georgetown University, PIs: Carol. M. Moinpour, PhD (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle) and Arnold L. Potosky, PhD, U01AR057971; Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, PI: Esi M. Morgan DeWitt, MD, MSCE, 1U01AR057940; University of Maryland, Baltimore, PI: Lisa M. Shulman, MD, 1U01AR057967; and Duke University, PI: Kevin P. Weinfurt, PhD, 2U01AR052186). NIH Science Officers on this project have included Deborah Ader, PhD, Vanessa Ameen, MD, Susan Czajkowski, PhD, Basil Eldadah, MD, PhD, Lawrence Fine, MD, DrPH, Lawrence Fox, MD, PhD, Lynne Haverkos, MD, MPH, Thomas Hilton, PhD, Laura Lee Johnson, PhD, Michael Kozak, PhD, Peter Lyster, PhD, Donald Mattison, MD, Claudia Moy, PhD, Louis Quatrano, PhD, Bryce Reeve, PhD, William Riley, PhD, Ashley Wilder Smith, PhD, MPH, Susana Serrate-Sztein, MD, Ellen Werner, PhD and James Witter, MD, PhD. This manuscript was reviewed by PROMIS reviewers before submission for external peer review. See the Web site at for additional information on the PROMIS initiative.

Supplementary material

11136_2014_691_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (576 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 575 kb)


  1. 1.
    Bodenreider, O., & Stevens, R. (2006). Bio-ontologies: Current trends and future directions. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 7, 256–274.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riley, W. T., Rothrock, N., Bruce, B., et al. (2010). Patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) domain names and definitions revisions: Further evaluation of content validity in IRT-derived item banks. Quality of Life Research, 19(9), 1311–1321.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cella, D., Yount, S., Rothrock, N., et al. (2007). The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH Roadmap cooperative group during its first two years. Medical Care, 45(5 Suppl 1), S3–S11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ICF: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. (2001). World Health Organization, Geneva Switzerland.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tucker, C. A., Cieza, A., Riley, A. W., Stucki, G., Lai, J. S., Bedirhan Ustun, T., Kostanjsek, N., Riley, W., Cella, D., & Forrest, C. B. (2014). Concept analysis of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Quality of Life Research. doi: 10.1007/s11136-014-0622-y
  6. 6.
    Cieza, A., Brockow, T., Ewert, T., et al. (2002). Linking health-status measurements to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 34, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cieza, A., Geyh, S., Chatterji, S., Kostanjsek, N., Ustün, B., & Stucki, G. (2005). ICF linking rules: An update based on lessons learned. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 212–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geyh, S., Cieza, A., Kolleris, B., Grimby, G., & Stucki, G. (2007). Content comparison of health-related quality of life measures used in stroke based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF): A systematic review. Quality of Life Research, 16(5), 833–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ustun, T. B., Chatterji, S., Bickenbach, J., Kostanjsek, N., & Schneider, M. (2003). The international classification of functioning, disability and health: A new tool for understanding disability and health. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25(11–12), 565–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stucki, G., Cieza, A., Ewert, T., et al. (2002). Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in clinical practice. Disability and Rehabilitation, 24, 281–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    PROMIS® Instrument Development and Psychometric Evaluation Scientific Standards. Accessed December 19, 2012.
  13. 13.
    Carle, A. C., Cella, D., Cai, L., Choi, S. W., Crane, P. K., Curtis, S. M., et al. (2011). Advancing PROMIS’s methodology: Results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Psychometric Summit. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 11(6), 677–684. doi: 10.1586/erp.11.74. PubMed PMID: 22098283; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3312372.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carole A. Tucker
    • 1
  • Reuben Escorpizo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alarcos Cieza
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jin Shei Lai
    • 6
  • Gerold Stucki
    • 3
    • 4
  • T. Bedirhan Ustun
    • 7
  • Nenad Kostanjsek
    • 7
  • David Cella
    • 6
  • Christopher B. Forrest
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.College of Health Professions and Social Work (CHPSW)Temple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical TherapyLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.ICF Research Branch of the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (DIMDI)NottwilSwitzerland
  4. 4.Swiss Paraplegic ResearchNottwilSwitzerland
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  6. 6.Department of Medical Social SciencesNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  7. 7.CTS TeamWorld Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  8. 8.The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  9. 9.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  10. 10.Leonard Davis Institute of Health EconomicsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations