Sleep characteristics and health-related quality of life among a national sample of American young adults: assessment of possible health disparities
- 719 Downloads
The aim of the study is to examine the associations of sleep characteristics with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep health disparities among US young adults using national survey data.
The study sample consisted of 2,391 young adults aged 20–39 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. HRQOL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s HRQOL-4 scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the sleep–HRQOL associations. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine whether the associations varied by sociodemographic characteristics.
Approximately 35.6 % of young adults slept <7 h, 41.9 % had insomnia, 4.4 % had sleep disorder, and 8.5 % had sleep apnea. More females had insomnia than males (48.6 vs. 35.9 %, P < 0.001). US-born young adults had more sleep disturbances than their foreign-born counterparts. Compared with those sleeping 7–8 h, the adjusted odds ratio of poor general health was 1.60 (95 % confidence interval, 1.08–2.35) for individuals sleeping 6–7 h and 1.88 (1.23–2.86) for those sleeping <6 h. Similar results were found for low mental HRQOL and overall HRQOL. Insomnia, long sleep latency, troubling falling asleep, daytime sleepiness, and frequent sleeping pill use were significantly associated with low mental HRQOL and overall HRQOL. The associations between sleep disturbances and low HRQOL varied little by sex, race/ethnicity, and country of birth.
Sleep disturbances are common among US young adults and are significantly associated with low HRQOL. Objective measures of sleep are warranted to confirm our findings.
KeywordsSleep Health-related quality of life Health disparities Young adults National survey
Body mass index
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Health-related quality of life
National Center for Health Statistics
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
National Sleep Foundation
Restless legs syndrome
This study was supported by grants from NIH/NIMHD (T37-MD001449) and NIH/NCRR/NCATS (8UL1TR000170).
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- 1.US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. (2003). National sleep disorders research plan. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/health/prof/sleep/res_plan/sleep-rplan.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2012.
- 4.Angelone, A. M., Mattei, A., Sbarbati, M., & Di Orio, F. (2011). Prevalence and correlates for self-reported sleep problems among nursing students. Journal of Preventative Medicine & Hygiene, 52(4), 201–208.Google Scholar
- 21.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Accessed July 9, 2012.Google Scholar
- 27.National Sleep Foundation. ‘Sleep in America’ poll. Available at: http://www.sleepfoundation.org. Accessed August 1, 2012.
- 29.Li, C., Ford, E. S., Zhao, G., Croft, J. B., Balluz, L. S., & Mokdad, A. H. (2010). Prevalence of self-reported clinically diagnosed sleep apnea according to obesity status in men and women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006. Preventive Medicine, 51(1), 18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Davis, N. J., Vaughan, C. P., Johnson, T. M., II, Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., Redden, D. T., et al. (2013). Caffeine Intake and its Association with Urinary Incontinence in United States men: Results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. Journal of Urology, 189(6), 2170–2174.Google Scholar
- 39.National Institutes of Health. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
- 42.Lohsoonthorn, V., Khidir, H., Casillas, G., Lertmaharit, S., Tadesse, M. G., Pensuksan, W. C., et al. (2012). Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students. Sleep and Breathing (in press).Google Scholar
- 47.Redline, S., Tishler, P. V., Schluchter, M., Aylor, J., Clark, K., & Graham, G. (1999). Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in children. Associations with obesity, race, and respiratory problems. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159((5 Pt 1)), 1527–1532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Stranges, S., Dorn, J. M., Shipley, M. J., Kandala, N. B., Trevisan, M., Miller, M. A., et al. (2008). Correlates of short and long sleep duration: A cross-cultural comparison between the United Kingdom and the United States: The Whitehall II Study and the Western New York Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(12), 1353–1364.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 59.Dowd, J. B., & Todd, M. (2011). Does self-reported health bias the measurement of health inequalities in US adults? Evidence using anchoring vignettes from the Health and Retirement Study. Journals of Gerontology Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(4), 478–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar