Quality of Life Research

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 759–770

A review of patient-reported outcomes for children and adolescents with obesity

  • Bani Ahuja
  • Anne F. Klassen
  • Randi Satz
  • Nikita Malhotra
  • Elena Tsangaris
  • Matthew Ventresca
  • Nora Fayed

DOI: 10.1007/s11136-013-0459-9

Cite this article as:
Ahuja, B., Klassen, A.F., Satz, R. et al. Qual Life Res (2014) 23: 759. doi:10.1007/s11136-013-0459-9



Obesity is a chronic condition that can impact the physical, emotional, mental and social elements that encompass a child’s life. The objectives of this study were to identify which generic and obesity-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are used in obesity literature, as well as review their conceptual approach, health and health-related content, ethical content and psychometric properties.


PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched from the inception of each database to May 2012 to identify all studies using multi-dimensional PRO instruments with children who are overweight or obese. The most common generic and all obesity-specific instruments were analyzed according to the study objectives.


From 4,226 articles identified by our search, 70 articles used 6 generic and 4 obesity-specific PRO instruments. While the most commonly used PRO instrument was the generic PedsQL 4.0 (used in 53 studies), many health domains were found in the obesity-specific instruments that are not measured by the PedsQL 4.0. Summary of the development and psychometric properties of the generic and obesity PROs identified that no one instrument meets all the guideline criteria for instrument development and validation, e.g., only one instrument included qualitative input from children with obesity in the content development phase.


This comprehensive review provides information to aid in selecting multi-dimensional PRO instruments in children with obesity according to various aspects of content as well as psychometric properties. The conceptual analysis shows that the reviewed PRO instruments contain inconsistencies in their conceptual approaches. Also, certain relevant health domains to children and youth with obesity were not included in the most commonly used generic instrument. The obesity-specific instruments require further validation before they can be used in intervention studies.


Quality of life (QOL) Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) Child Obesity Patient-reported outcome International classification of functioning disability and health (ICF) 



Child Health Questionnaire


Functioning disability and health


Health-related quality of life


Health Utilities Index


KINDL (registered) Quality of Life Questionnaire


International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth Version


Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids


Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory


Patient-reported outcome


Quality of life


World Health Organization


Youth Quality of Life-Surveillance Version


Youth Quality of Life-Weight

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bani Ahuja
    • 1
  • Anne F. Klassen
    • 2
  • Randi Satz
    • 3
  • Nikita Malhotra
    • 4
  • Elena Tsangaris
    • 5
  • Matthew Ventresca
    • 5
    • 6
  • Nora Fayed
    • 7
  1. 1.Collage Pediatric TherapyMississaugaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Infant and Child Development Services PeelTrillium Health PartnersMississaugaCanada
  4. 4.University of OttawaOttawaCanada
  5. 5.Department of Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  6. 6.Faculty of Applied Health SciencesBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada
  7. 7.Division of Healthcare and Outcomes Research, Toronto Western Research InstituteUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada

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