Quality of Life Research

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 349–361

PROMIS® Parent Proxy Report Scales for children ages 5–7 years: an item response theory analysis of differential item functioning across age groups

  • James W. Varni
  • David Thissen
  • Brian D. Stucky
  • Yang Liu
  • Brooke Magnus
  • Hally Quinn
  • Debra E. Irwin
  • Esi Morgan DeWitt
  • Jin-Shei Lai
  • Dagmar Amtmann
  • Heather E. Gross
  • Darren A. DeWalt
Article

Abstract

Objective

The objective of the present study is to describe the extension of the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pediatric parent proxy-report item banks for parents of children ages 5–7 years, and to investigate differential item functioning (DIF) between the data obtained from parents of 5–7-year-old children with the data obtained from parents of 8–17 year-old children in the original construction of the scales.

Methods

Item response theory (IRT) analyses of DIF were conducted comparing data from the 5–7 age group with data from the established scales for ages 8–17 across 5 generic health domains (physical functioning, pain, fatigue, emotional health, and social health) and asthma.

Results

IRT DIF analyses revealed that the majority of the items functioned similarly with responses from parents of younger and older children. A small number of items were removed from the item bank for younger children, and a few items that exhibited statistical DIF were retained in the pools with the caveat that they should not be used in studies that involve comparisons of younger children with older children.

Conclusions

The study confirms that most of the items in the PROMIS parent proxy-report item banks can be used with parents of children ages 5–7. It is anticipated that these new scales will have application for younger pediatric populations when pediatric self-report is not feasible.

Keywords

PROMIS Parent proxy-report Item response theory 

Abbreviations

PROMIS

Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System

FDA

Food and drug administration

HRQOL

Health-related quality of life

NIH

National institute of health

References

  1. 1.
    Ader, D. N. (2007). Developing the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS). Medical Care, 45(Suppl 1), S1–S2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reeve, B. B., Hays, R. D., Bjorner, J. B., Cook, K. F., Crane, P. K., Teresi, J. A., et al. (2007). Psychometric evaluation and calibration of health-related quality of life item banks: Plans for the patient-report outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS). Medical Care, 45(Suppl 1), S22–S31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cella, D., Yount, S., Rothrock, N., Gershon, R., Cook, K., Reeve, B., et al. (2007). The patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH Roadmap Cooperative Group during its first two years. Medical Care, 45(Suppl 1), S3–S11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Irwin, D. E., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., DeWitt, E. M., Lai, J. S., Yeatts, K., et al. (2010). Sampling plan and patient characteristics of the PROMIS pediatrics large-scale survey. Quality of Life Research, 19, 585–594.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Irwin, D. E., Stucky, B. D., Langer, M. M., Thissen, D., DeWitt, E. M., Lai, J. S., et al. (2010). An item response analysis of the pediatric PROMIS anxiety and depressive symptoms scales. Quality of Life Research, 19, 595–607.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Varni, J. W., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., DeWitt, E. M., Irwin, D. E., Lai, J. S., et al. (2010). PROMIS Pediatric Pain Interference scale: An item response theory analysis of the pediatric pain item bank. Journal of Pain, 11, 1109–1119.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeWitt, E. M., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., Irwin, D. E., Langer, M., Varni, J. W., et al. (2011). Construction of the eight-item patient-reported outcomes measurement information system pediatric physical function scales: Built using item response theory. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 64, 794–804.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Irwin, D. E., Stucky, B. D., Langer, M. M., Thissen, D., DeWitt, E. M., Lai, J. S., et al. (2012). PROMIS pediatric anger scale: An item response theory analysis. Quality of Life Research, 21, 697–706.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DeWalt, D. A., Thissen, D., Stucky, B. D., Langer, M. M., DeWitt, E. M., Irwin, D. E., Lai, J. S., Yeatts, K. B., Gross, H. E., Taylor, O., & Varni, J. W. (in press). PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: Development of a peer relationships item bank as part of social health measurement. Health Psychology.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lai, J. S., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., Varni, J. W., DeWitt, E. M., Irwin, D. E., Yeatts, K. B., & Dewalt, D. A. (2013). Development and psychometric properties of the PROMIS® pediatric fatigue item banks. Quality of Life Research. doi:10.1007/s11136-013-0357-1.
  11. 11.
    Yeatts, K., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., Irwin, D. E., Varni, J. W., DeWitt, E. M., et al. (2010). Construction of the pediatric asthma impact scale (PAIS) for the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS). Journal of Asthma, 47, 295–302.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thissen, D., Varni, J. W., Stucky, B. D., Liu, Y., Irwin, D. E., & DeWalt, D. A. (2011). Using the PedsQL™ 3.0 asthma module to obtain scores comparable with those of the PROMIS pediatric asthma impact scale (PAIS). Quality of Life Research, 20, 1497–1505.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., & Burwinkle, T. M. (2007). How young can children reliably and validly self-report their health-related quality of life? An analysis of 8,591 children across age subgroups with the PedsQL™ 4.0 generic core scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(1), 1–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., & Burwinkle, T. M. (2007). Parent proxy-report of their children’s health-related quality of life: An analysis of 13,878 parents’ reliability and validity across age subgroups using the PedsQL™ 4.0 generic core scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(2), 1–10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Irwin, D. E., Gross, H. E., Stucky, B. D., Thissen, D., DeWitt, E. M., Lai, J. S., et al. (2012). Development of six PROMIS pediatrics parent proxy-report item banks. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(22), 1–13.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Varni, J. W., Thissen, D., Stucky, B. D., Liu, Y., Gorder, H., Irwin, D. E., et al. (2012). PROMIS® parent proxy report scales: An item response theory analysis of the parent proxy report item banks. Quality of Life Research, 21, 1223–1240.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reise, S. P., & Waller, N. G. (2009). Item response theory and clinical measurement. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 27–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cai, L., du Toit, S. H. C., & Thissen, D. (2011). IRTPRO: Flexible, multidimensional, multiple categorical IRT modeling (Computer software). Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 57, 289–300.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steinberg, L., & Thissen, D. (2006). Using effect sizes for research reporting: Examples using item response theory to analyze differential item functioning. Psychological Methods, 11, 402–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Varni
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Thissen
    • 3
  • Brian D. Stucky
    • 4
  • Yang Liu
    • 3
  • Brooke Magnus
    • 3
  • Hally Quinn
    • 3
  • Debra E. Irwin
    • 5
  • Esi Morgan DeWitt
    • 6
  • Jin-Shei Lai
    • 7
  • Dagmar Amtmann
    • 8
  • Heather E. Gross
    • 9
  • Darren A. DeWalt
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, College of MedicineTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, College of ArchitectureTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.RAND CorporationSanta MonicaUSA
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  6. 6.Division of Rheumatology, Department of PediatricsCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  7. 7.Department of Medical Social SciencesNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  8. 8.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  9. 9.Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services ResearchUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations