Measuring health-related quality of life among adults in Singapore: population norms for the EQ-5D
- 747 Downloads
To provide population norms for the Euro-QoL-5D (EQ-5D) according to age, sex, ethnicity and language version using a representative sample of adults aged 18 years and above in the Singapore population.
A total of 5,594 respondents who completed the self-administrated paper-based EQ-5D in the Singapore Mental Health Study were included in this study. Socio-demographic characteristics were captured using a structured questionnaire.
The mean age of the sample was 40 years, females comprised 52.2 % of the sample and 78 % were of Chinese descent. Pain/discomfort was the most frequently reported problem (15.3 %) followed by anxiety/depression (8.2 %), whilst self-care (0.5 %) was the least frequently reported problem in the Singapore population. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that younger age, higher income, those employed and those administered English version of the questionnaire were significantly associated with higher EQ-5D index.
This article provides important population norms for the EQ-5D for measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both in clinical settings and in the research context. Our results suggest that socio-demographic factors should be taken into account when assessing HRQOL among adults in Singapore.
KeywordsEQ-5D Population norms Singapore Health-related quality of life
The study was funded by the Singapore Millennium Foundation and the Ministry of Health, Singapore.
- 3.Singapore Department of Statistics. (2010). Population trends 2010: Department of statistics. Ministry of Trade & Industry: Republic of Singapore.Google Scholar
- 4.Quah, J. H., Luo, N., Ng, W. Y., How, C. H., & Tay, E. G. (2011). Health-related quality of life is associated with diabetic complications, but not with short-term diabetic control in primary care. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 40(6), 276–286.Google Scholar
- 8.Chow, W. H., Chang, P., Lee, S. C., Wong, A., Shen, H. M., & Verkooijen, H. M. (2010). Complementary and alternative medicine among Singapore cancer patients. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 39(2), 129–135.Google Scholar
- 10.Luo, N., Low, S., Lau, P. N., Au, W. L., & Tan, L. C. (2009). Is EQ-5D a valid quality of life instrument in patients with Parkinson’s disease? A study in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 38(6), 521–528.Google Scholar
- 12.Wee, H. L., Loke, W. C., Li, S. C., Fong, K. Y., Cheung, Y. B., Machin, D., et al. (2007). Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Singapore Malay and Tamil versions of the EQ-5D. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 36(6), 403–408.Google Scholar
- 15.Luo, N., Chew, L. H., Fong, K. Y., Koh, D. R., Ng, S. C., Yoon, K. H., et al. (2003). Validity and reliability of the EQ-5D self-report questionnaire in Chinese-speaking patients with rheumatic diseases in Singapore. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 32(5), 685–690.Google Scholar
- 26.Oppe, M., & De Charro, F. (2004). Population norms and their uses. In A. Szende & A. Williams (Eds.), Measuring Self-Reported Population Health: An International Perspective based on EQ-5D. Budapest: SpringMed Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
- 27.Fayers, P., & Machin, D. (2007). Quality of life: The assessment, analysis and interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. England: Wiley.Google Scholar
- 30.Chadwick, D. (2001). Monotherapy comparative trials: Equivalence and differences in clinical trials. Epilepsy Research, 45(101), 103.Google Scholar
- 35.Cleemput, I. (2004). Can we explain inter-country differences in levels of health? In A. Szende & A. Williams (Eds.), Measuring Self-Reported Population Health: An International Perspective based on EQ-5D. Budapest: SpringMed Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
- 41.Pullenayegum, E. M., Tarride, J. E., Xie, F., & O’Reilly, D. (2011). Calculating utility decrements associated with an adverse event: Marginal Tobit and CLAD coefficients should be used with caution. Medical Decision Making, 1(6), 790–799.Google Scholar