Well-being in mothers of children with congenital heart defects: a 3-year follow-up
- 409 Downloads
This prospective case–cohort study compared subjective well-being (SWB) among mothers whose children had various degrees of congenital heart defects (CHD) with mothers of children without CHD (controls).
Nationwide CHD registry data were linked to data collected from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at gestational week 30, 6 months, and 36 months postpartum. A total of 175 mothers of children with mild, moderate, and severe CHD were identified in a cohort of 44,144 mothers. The SWB index was operationalized by means of three subscales: a cognitive aspect, positive affect, and negative affect.
Mothers of children with severe CHD reported significantly lower SWB than the controls at 6 months postpartum (p = .003), with further decrease in SWB at 36 months postpartum (p = .001). SWB levels in the mild and moderate CHD group did not deviate significantly from controls.
The findings suggest a pattern in which all stressors concerning the severely ill child lead to significant deterioration of maternal well-being. Having a child with mild or moderate CHD, which is a less severe and shorter-term stressor, did not reduce mothers’ well-being.
KeywordsCongenital heart defects Longitudinal research Distress Motherhood Coping
Congenital heart defect
The authors thank Bo Engdahl for his expert contribution to the statistical discussion prior to the final analysis of the data and Sarah E. Hampson for critically reviewing the paper for important intellectual content (NCR fund no. 194190). We are grateful to all the participating families who take part in this ongoing cohort study. A special thanks to the parents we met in the Oslo University Hospital who voluntarily took time to give us insight into their everyday lives and challenges for their children with CHD. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health, NIH/NIEHS (grant no. N0-ES-75558), NIH/NINDS (grant no.1 UO1 NS 047537-01), and the Norwegian Research Council/FUGE (grant no. 186031/V50).
Conflict of interest
We declare that we have no conflicts of interest.
The study has been approved by the Norwegian Regional Committee of Medical Ethics and by the Norwegian Data Inspectorate and is in agreement with the established international research codes of ethics.
- 18.Korkelia, J. (2000). Measuring aspects of mental health. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (Stakes): Helsinki.Google Scholar
- 29.Dempster, A. P., Laird, N. M., & Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B, 39, 1–38.Google Scholar
- 30.Tabachnick B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. (5 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- 33.Stene-Larsen, K., Brandlistuen, R. E., Holmstrøm, H., Landolt, M. A., Eskedal, L. T., Engdahl, B., et al. (2011). Longitudinal analysis of emotional problems in children with congenital heart defects: A follow-up from age 6 to 36 months. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 461–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health—How people manage stress and stay well. London: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- 43.Spijkerboer, A. W., Helbing, W. A., Bogers, A. J. J. C., Van Domburg, R. T., Verhulst, F. C., & Utens, E. M. W. J. (2007). Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease. Cardiology in the Young, 17, 638–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar