Quality of Life Research

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 27–35

Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) loss due to smoking in the United States

  • Haomiao Jia
  • Matthew M. Zack
  • William W. Thompson
  • Shanta R. Dube
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) loss due to smoking and examine trends and state differences in smoking-related QALE loss in the U.S.

Methods

Population health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores were estimated from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This study constructed life tables based on U.S. mortality files and the mortality linked National Health Interview Survey and calculated QALE for smokers, non-smokers, and the total population.

Results

In 2009, an 18-year-old smoker was expected to have 43.5 (SE = 0.2) more years of QALE, and a non-smoker of the same age was expected to have 54.6 (SE = 0.2) more years of QALE. Therefore, smoking contributed 11.0 (SE = 0.2) years of QALE loss for smokers and 4.1 years (37%) of this loss resulted from reductions in HRQOL alone. At the population level, smoking was associated with 1.9 fewer years of QALE for U.S. adults throughout their lifetime, starting at age 18.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates an application of a recently developed QALE estimation methodology. The analyses show good precision and relatively small bias in estimating QALE––especially at the individual level. Although smokers may live longer today than before, they still have a high disease burden due to morbidities associated with poor HRQOL.

Keywords

Quality of life Life expectancy Quality-adjusted life year Smoking Mortality Morbidity 

Abbreviations

BRFSS

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

MEPS

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

HRQOL

Health-related quality of life

QALE

Quality-adjusted life expectancy

QALY

Quality-adjusted life year

QWB

Quality of Well-being Scale

YPLL

Years of potential of life lost

CDC

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haomiao Jia
    • 1
  • Matthew M. Zack
    • 2
  • William W. Thompson
    • 2
  • Shanta R. Dube
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health and School of NursingColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health PromotionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health PromotionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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