Quality of Life Research

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1123–1129 | Cite as

Quality of life in Brazil: normative values for the Whoqol-bref in a southern general population sample

  • Luciane N. Cruz
  • Carisi A. Polanczyk
  • Suzi A. Camey
  • Juliana F. Hoffmann
  • Marcelo P. Fleck



Normative data for WHOQOL-bref are scarce in the literature and unavailable in Latin American countries. The main objective of this study was to provide normative scores of WHOQOL-bref in a general population sample in Brazil and to describe differences in mean scores according to some socio-demographic characteristics.


WHOQOL-bref was applied to a randomly selected sample of the general population of Porto Alegre. Participants were literate people aged 20 to 64 years. The questionnaires were self-administered in the presence of an interviewer in the respondent’s home.


The response rate was 68%, and the final sample contained 751 respondents (38% men, 62% women). Low quality of life was observed in the following subgroups: female gender, lower economic class, lower educational level, and the subgroup reporting a chronic medical condition. The mean scores of the WHOQOL-bref and percentiles of scores are reported as normative data for the general population.


Our results can be useful to researchers using the WHOQOL-bref to compare their results with normative data from a randomly selected sample of general population. Additionally, the ability of WHOQOL-bref to discriminate different population subgroups makes it an important tool to identify vulnerable groups in epidemiological surveys.


Quality of life WHOQOL-bref Normative data Brazil 



World health organization quality of life instrument


Quality of life


Gross domestic product


Brazilian institute of geography and statistics


Statistical package for social sciences



We thank the Research Incentive and Event Fund of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for the financial aid in translating this article. Dr. Luciane Cruz received graduate research scholarship from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brazil. Prof. Polanczyk and Prof. Fleck received a research scholarship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)/Brazil. This study was funded by CNPQ/Brazil (Edital MCT-CNPq/MS-SCTIE-DECIT No 36/2005).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciane N. Cruz
    • 1
  • Carisi A. Polanczyk
    • 1
  • Suzi A. Camey
    • 1
  • Juliana F. Hoffmann
    • 2
  • Marcelo P. Fleck
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate Studies Program in Epidemiology/Health Technology Assessment Institute (IATS)/Hospital de Clínicas de Porto AlegreFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Graduate Studies Program in EpidemiologyFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Graduate Studies Program in PsychiatryFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil

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