Quality of Life Research

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1249–1253 | Cite as

Validation of the Swedish translation of the general self-efficacy scale

  • Jesper Löve
  • Crystal Dea Moore
  • Gunnel Hensing
Brief Communication



To study the internal consistency, factorial structure, and convergent validity of the Swedish translation of the General Self-Efficacy scale (S-GSE).


The S-GSE and two items on mental and physical work capacity were completed by a randomized population cohort (n = 4,027) and two cohorts (n = 3,310 and n = 498) of incident cases of sick-leave (>14 days).


S-GSE means were higher among men than women in two of the cohorts and higher in the randomized population cohort than in the two sick-leave cohorts. Internal consistency was high with α = .90. Unidimensionality was indicated and factor loadings ranged between .64 and .80. Moderate correlations (.35–.38) between the S-GSE and mental work capacity were found in all cohorts. Yet, the correlation between S-GSE and physical work capacity was weaker in the sick-leave cohorts. The psychometric properties showed similar patterns across gender.


Across three cohorts, additionally stratified by gender, the S-GSE comprised one single latent factor and showed high internal consistency. However, since S-GSE was more strongly related to self-assessments of mental work capacity than physical work capacity regardless of sick-leave status, the S-GSE may not be a strong predictor of beliefs about physical work capacity across all populations.


General self-efficacy Work capacity Sick leave Psychometric analysis 



General Self-Efficacy scale


Cohort of a random sample of the general population


Cohort of sick-listed participants (>14 days) reported by the employer


Cohort of self-certified sick-listed participants


  1. 1.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control (p. 604). NY: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307–336). CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scholz, U., et al. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 242–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Self-efficacy measurement and generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A users’s portfolio. Causal control beliefs (pp. 33–39). Windsor: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherer, M., et al. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construct and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luszczynska, A., Gutierrez-Dona, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40(2), 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bubany, S. T., & Hansen, J. I. C. (2010). Ability self-estimates and self-efficacy: Meaningfully distinct? Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43(3), 168–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lisiankova, K., & Wright, R. E. (2005). Demographic change and the European union labour market. National Institute Economic Review, 194, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koskinen-Hagman, M., Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1999). Swedish version of the general self-efficacy scale. 1999; Available from:
  10. 10.
    Radkiewicz, P., Widerszal-Bazyl, M., & NEXT-group. (2005). Psychometric properties of work ability index in the light of comparative survey study. In G. Costa, W. Goedhart, & J. Ilmarinen (Eds.), Assessment and promotion of work ability, health and well-being of ageing workers (pp. 304–309). Verona: International Congress Series, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nunnaly, J., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leganger, A., Kraft, P., & Roysamb, E. (2000). Perceived self-efficacy in health behaviour research: Conceptualisation, measurement and correlates. Psychology & Health, 15(1), 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesper Löve
    • 1
  • Crystal Dea Moore
    • 2
  • Gunnel Hensing
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Skidmore CollegeSaratoga SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations