Gender differences among middle-aged Koreans for health-related quality of life related to metabolic syndrome
- 192 Downloads
The influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) on quality of life has not been studied much among Asians, especially Koreans. This study compared the association between MS and health-related quality of life (HRQL) by gender for middle-aged Koreans.
We used data containing 2,264 adults between the ages of 40 and 59 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The criteria for MS were defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. HRQL was measured by the EQ-5D preference score. Good health status was defined as having higher scores than the mean EQ5D preference score. We used logistic regression methods to adjust for socioeconomic covariates and survey sample design.
The mean EQ-5D preference score was significantly lower in women with MS compared to women without MS (0.81 vs. 0.88), but this was not the case for men (0.92 vs. 0.92). These consistent results were observed after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates. In multiple logistic analyses, women with MS had a lower likelihood of having good health status compared to women without MS (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38–0.96). For men, there was no difference.
Our study identified a nationally representative health preference score for MS in Korean middle-aged men and women while highlighting a gender difference that merits more research (i.e., MS appeared to have a significant negative impact for women’s HRQL, but not for men). At the very least, future studies should consider gender differences when addressing quality of life among patients with MS.
KeywordsMetabolic syndrome Health-related quality of life EQ-5D Gender difference
Coronary Heart Disease
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Health-Related Quality of Life
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Body Mass Index
Quality Adjusted Life Year
Fasting plasma glucose
National Cholesterol Education Program
Visual Analogous Scale
- EQ VAS
EQ Visual Analogous Scale
Quality of Life
- 2.Park, Y. W., Zhu, S., Palaniappan, L., Heshka, S., Carnethon, M. R., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2003). The metabolic syndrome: Prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 427–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Laaksonen, D. E., Lakka, H. M., Niskanen, L. K., Kaplan, G. A., Salonen, J. T., & Lakka, T. A. (2002). Metabolic syndrome and development of diabetes mellitus: Application and validation of recently suggested definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156(11), 1070–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Murdaugh, C. (1997). Health-related quality of life as an outcome in organizational research. Medical Care, 35(11 Suppl), NS41–NS48.Google Scholar
- 17.Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2005). Korea centers for disease control and prevention. Progress report on the national health and nutrition survey 2005 (Health examination).Google Scholar
- 18.Expert Panel on Detection E, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. (2001). Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2486–2497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Cheung, K., Oemar, M., Oppe, M., et al. (2009). EQ-5D user guide: Basic information on how to use EQ-5D, Euroqol Group. http://www.euroqol.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Documenten/PDF/User_Guide_v2_March_2009.pdf. Accessed February 14, 2010.
- 20.Szende, A., Oppe, M., & Devlin, N. (2007). EQ-5D value sets: Inventory, comparative review and user guide. EuroQoL Group Monographs. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- 22.EQ-5D Languages; available versions. Euroqol Group. http://www.euroqol.org/eq-5d/eq-5d-versions/eq-5d-languages/available-versions.html. Accessed February 14, 2010.
- 23.Kang, E. J., Shin, H. S., Park, H. J., Jo, M. W., & Kim, N. Y. (2006). A valuation of health status using EQ-5D. The Korean Journal of Health Economics and Policy, 12(2), 19–43.Google Scholar
- 24.S. A. S. Institute Inc. (2003). SAS/STAT user’s guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
- 25.StataCorp. LP. (2009). Survey data reference manual. Texas: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- 28.Gardner, A. W., Montgomery, P. S., & Parker, D. E. (2006). Metabolic syndrome impairs physical function, health-related quality of life, and peripheral circulation in patients with intermittent claudication. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 43(6), 1191–1196; discussion 1197.Google Scholar
- 29.Roriz-Cruz, M., Rosset, I., Wada, T., Sakagami, T., Ishine, M., Roriz-Filho, J. S., et al. (2007). Stroke-independent association between metabolic syndrome and functional dependence, depression, and low quality of life in elderly community-dwelling Brazilian people. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 55(3), 374–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.Rieker, P. P., & Bird, C. E. (2005). Rethinking gender differences in health: Why we need to integrate social and biological perspectives. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(Spec No 2), 40–47.Google Scholar
- 49.D’Arcy, C., & Siddique, C. M. (2000). Marital status and psychological well-being: A cross-national comparative analysis. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 41, 149–166.Google Scholar