Quality of Life Research

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 431–438 | Cite as

Translation of the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into three south Asian languages and preliminary evaluation of SDI-21(Urdu)

  • Naheed Hanif
  • Nimarta Dharni
  • Adam Smith
  • Sangeeta Chattoo
  • Galina Velikova
  • Chris Bradley
  • Dan Stark
  • Penny WrightEmail author
Brief Communication



In the United Kingdom, cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires would allow for inclusivity in assessment in cancer clinics for non-English speakers. The aim was to translate the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) into Urdu, Punjabi and Hindi and undertake preliminary evaluation of translated versions.


The study comprised three stages: (1) translation/back translation and evaluation of cultural equivalence of the SDI-21, (2) south Asian (SA) patient evaluation of SDI-21 translations and (3) evaluation using Rasch analysis comparing English and Urdu SDI-21 from data pooled from this and three other studies.


Forward/backward translation resulted in minor amendments particularly in forward translation of SDI-21(Hindi). The majority of the 55 patients interviewed found the SDI-21 acceptable and clear, resulting in no amendments (all versions). Rasch analysis demonstrated good fit. Differential item functioning (DIF) was found for one item, in the comparison of white English (WE)- and SA Urdu-speaking groups. Detailed DIF analysis comparing self-completion and read-aloud administration by language group demonstrated this DIF only held for the comparison between SA English speakers (self-completion) and SA Urdu (read out).


Translated versions are culturally and linguistically acceptable. The SDI-21 (Urdu) performs similarly to the English version when self-completed.


Cancer Cultural equivalence Questionnaires Translation 



This paper presents independent research commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) Programme (Grant Reference Number PB-PG-0706-10284). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Funding for NH was from Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Research and Development Unit. Thanks to participants and translators.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naheed Hanif
    • 1
  • Nimarta Dharni
    • 2
  • Adam Smith
    • 3
  • Sangeeta Chattoo
    • 4
  • Galina Velikova
    • 3
  • Chris Bradley
    • 5
  • Dan Stark
    • 3
  • Penny Wright
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.University of LeedsLeedsUK
  4. 4.University of YorkYorkUK
  5. 5.Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustBradfordUK

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