Quality of Life Research

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1019–1024 | Cite as

Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery

  • Tiffiny A. Ainsworth
  • Jeffrey H. SpiegelEmail author
Original Paper



To determine the self-reported quality of life of male-to-female (MTF) transgendered individuals and how this quality of life is influenced by facial feminization and gender reassignment surgery.


Facial Feminization Surgery outcomes evaluation survey and the SF-36v2 quality of life survey were administered to male-to-female transgender individuals via the Internet and on paper. A total of 247 MTF participants were enrolled in the study.


Mental health-related quality of life was statistically diminished (P < 0.05) in transgendered women without surgical intervention compared to the general female population and transwomen who had gender reassignment surgery (GRS), facial feminization surgery (FFS), or both. There was no statistically significant difference in the mental health-related quality of life among transgendered women who had GRS, FFS, or both. Participants who had FFS scored statistically higher (P < 0.01) than those who did not in the FFS outcomes evaluation.


Transwomen have diminished mental health-related quality of life compared with the general female population. However, surgical treatments (e.g. FFS, GRS, or both) are associated with improved mental health-related quality of life.


Facial feminization surgery MTF transgender Quality of life Gender reassignment surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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