Measuring social health in the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS): item bank development and testing
- 934 Downloads
To develop a social health measurement framework, to test items in diverse populations and to develop item response theory (IRT) item banks.
A literature review guided framework development of Social Function and Social Relationships sub-domains. Items were revised based on patient feedback, and Social Function items were field-tested. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF).
The analytic sample included 956 general population respondents who answered 56 Ability to Participate and 56 Satisfaction with Participation items. EFA and CFA identified three Ability to Participate sub-domains. However, because of positive and negative wording, and content redundancy, many items did not fit the IRT model, so item banks do not yet exist. EFA, CFA and IRT identified two preliminary Satisfaction item banks. One item exhibited trivial age DIF.
After extensive item preparation and review, EFA-, CFA- and IRT-guided item banks help provide increased measurement precision and flexibility. Two Satisfaction short forms are available for use in research and clinical practice. This initial validation study resulted in revised item pools that are currently undergoing testing in new clinical samples and populations.
KeywordsPatient-reported outcomes Social health Social function Social relationships Item banks
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap initiative to develop a computerized system measuring patient-reported outcomes in respondents with a wide range of chronic diseases and demographic characteristics. PROMIS was funded by cooperative agreements to a Statistical Coordinating Center (Northwestern University, PI: David Cella, PhD, U01AR52177) and six Primary Research Sites (Duke University, PI: Kevin Weinfurt, PhD, U01AR52186; University of North Carolina, PI: Darren DeWalt, MD, MPH, U01AR52181; University of Pittsburgh, PI: Paul A. Pilkonis, PhD, U01AR52155; Stanford University, PI: James Fries, MD, U01AR52158; Stony Brook University, PI: Arthur Stone, PhD, U01AR52170; and University of Washington, PI: Dagmar Amtmann, PhD, U01AR52171). NIH Science Officers on this project have included Deborah Ader, PhD, Susan Czajkowski, PhD, Lawrence Fine, MD, DrPH, Laura Lee Johnson, PhD, Louis Quatrano, PhD, Bryce Reeve, PhD, William Riley, PhD, Susana Serrate-Sztein, PhD, and James Witter, MD, PhD. This manuscript was reviewed by the PROMIS Publications Subcommittee prior to external peer review. The authors thank Ron Hays, PhD, and Paul Pilkonis, PhD, for helpful suggestions on the final version of the manuscript, and Jacquelyn George for assistance with research coordination. See the web site at www.nihpromis.org for additional information on the PROMIS cooperative group. Presented in part at the International Symposium on Measurement of Participation in Rehabilitation Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 14–15, 2008.
- 1.Cella, D., & Chang, C. H. (2000). A discussion of item response theory (IRT) and its applications in health status assessment. Medical Care, 38(9 Suppl), 1166–1172.Google Scholar
- 2.Hays, R. D., Morales, L. S., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory and health outcomes measurement in the 21st century. Medical Care, 38(9 Suppl II), 28–42.Google Scholar
- 4.Hahn, E. A., Cella, D., Bode, R. K., Gershon, R., & Lai, J. S. (2006). Item banks and their potential applications to health status assessment in diverse populations. Medical Care, 44(11 Suppl 3), S189–S197.Google Scholar
- 5.Cella, D., Yount, S., Rothrock, N., Gershon, R., Cook, K., Reeve, B., et al. (2007). The patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH roadmap cooperative group during its first two years. Medical Care, 45(5 Suppl 1), S3–S11.Google Scholar
- 6.World Health Organization. (1946). Constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- 7.House, J. S., & Kahn, R. L. (1985). Measures and concepts of social support. In S. Cohen & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Social support and health (pp. 83–108). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- 9.Berkman, L., Glass, T., Berkman, L., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Social integration, social methods, social support, and health. In L. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 137–173). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 12.Birchwood, M., Smith, J., Cochrane, R., Wetton, S., & Copestake, S. (1990). The social functioning scale. The development and validation of a new scale of social adjustment for use in family intervention programmes with schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 853–859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Eisen, S. V., Normand, S. L. T., Belanger, A. J., Gevorkian, S., & Irvin, E. A. (1994). BASIS-32 and the revised behavioral symptom identification scale (BASIS-R). In M. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (3rd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 759–790). Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- 14.Dijkers, M. P., Whiteneck, G., & El Jaroudi, R. (2000). Measures of social outcomes in disability research. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(12 Suppl 2), S63–S80.Google Scholar
- 15.World Health Organization (2001, 2001/11/27/). World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II) Retrieved 2005/03/15/, from http://www.who.int/lcidh/whodas/index.html.
- 18.Wills, T. A. (1985). Supportive functions of interpersonal relationships. In S. Cohen & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Social support and health (pp. 61–82). Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- 19.Hahn, E. A., Cella, D., Bode, R. K., & Hanrahan, R. T. (2010). Measuring social well-being in people with chronic illness. Social Indicators Research, 96, 381–401.Google Scholar
- 20.DeWalt, D. A., Rothrock, N., Yount, S., & Stone, A. A. (2007). Evaluation of item candidates: The PROMIS qualitative item review. Medical Care, 45(5 Suppl 1), S12–S21.Google Scholar
- 22.Cella, D., Riley, W., Stone, A. A., Rothrock, N., Reeve, B. B., Yount, S., et al. (2009). Initial item banks and first wave testing of the patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) network: 2005–2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (in press).Google Scholar
- 26.Reeve, B. B., Hays, R. D., Bjorner, J. B., Cook, K. F., Crane, P. K., Teresi, J. A., et al. (2007). Psychometric evaluation and calibration of health-related quality of life item banks: Plans for the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS). Medical Care, 45(5 Suppl 1), S22–S31.Google Scholar
- 27.Muthen, B. O., du Toit, S. H. C., Spisic, D. (1987). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes Retrieved 2007/01/08/, from http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/muthen/articles/Article_075.pdf.
- 28.Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2006). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
- 31.McDonald, R. P. (1981). The dimensionality of test and items. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 34, 100–117.Google Scholar
- 32.Samejima, F. (1969). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores. Psychometrika Monograph Supplement, No. 17.Google Scholar
- 33.Thissen, D. (1991). MULTILOG user’s guide. Multiple, categorical item analysis and test scoring using item response theory. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
- 34.van der Linden, W. J., & Hambleton, R. K. (1997). Handbook of modern item response theory. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- 37.Thissen, D. (2003). IRTLRDIF-Software for the computation of the statistics involved in item response theory likelihood-ratio test for differential item functioning (Version 2.0b).Google Scholar
- 38.Garcia, S. F., Cella, D., Clauser, S. B., Flynn, K. E., Lai, J. S., Reeve, B. B., et al. (2007). Standardizing patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer clinical trials: a patient-reported outcomes measurement information system initiative. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(32), 5106–5112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar