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Quality of Life Research

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 335–346 | Cite as

Response shift: a brief overview and proposed research priorities

  • Ruth Barclay-Goddard
  • Joshua D. Epstein
  • Nancy E. Mayo
Article

Abstract

Aim

The objective of this overview is to review current methodologies of response shift research in patient-reported outcomes to facilitate and stimulate further research in this area.

Methods

This paper is a narrative overview of research in response shift.

Results

The following research priorities emerged: (1) obtain a consensus on terminology and theoretical models used, to ensure that all researchers and clinicians are at the same starting point; (2) determine the clinical importance of response shift; (3) determine the best way to measure and adjust for response shift as a clinically important confounder; (4) ascertain how response shift can best be identified when response shift is the focus of clinical treatment; and (5) establish what methods can be used to translate response shift knowledge into real-world settings.

Conclusions

With the adoption of these research priorities, we anticipate that the theories and processes of response shift will be better understood, current methods to analyze this phenomenon will be improved while new ones may also be developed, and the clinical importance and impact of response shift in measuring changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) will be determined.

Keywords

Quality of life Response shift Patient-reported outcomes 

Abbreviations

PROs

Patient-reported outcomes

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

HRQL

Health-related quality of life

PGI

Patient Generated Index

SEIQOL

Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life

HEI-Q

Health Education Impact Questionnaire

CFA

Confirmatory factor analysis

EQ-5D

EuroQoL—five dimensions

DIF

Differential item functioning

MID

Minimal important difference

VAS

Visual analogue scale

SEM

Structural equation modeling

ISOQOL

International Society for Quality of Life Research

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank members of the Response Shift Special Interest Group of ISOQOL at the occasion of the 12th meeting for suggesting we undertake this review. We would also like to thank members of the Response Shift Special Interest Group of ISOQOL for helpful comments on early versions of this manuscript: Dr. Carolyn Schwartz, Dr. Sara Ahmed, Dr. Mechteld Visser, Dr. Lena Ring, and Dr. Ida Korfage.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Barclay-Goddard
    • 1
  • Joshua D. Epstein
    • 2
  • Nancy E. Mayo
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physical Therapy, School of Medical RehabilitationUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, School of PharmacyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine and School of Physical and Occupational TherapyMcGill University Health CenterMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Division of Clinical EpidemiologyMcGill University Health CenterMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Division of GeriatricsMcGill University Health CenterMontrealCanada

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