Quality of Life Research

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 575–584 | Cite as

The factorial structure of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ)

  • Karl-Heinz SchulzEmail author
  • Sylvia Kroencke
  • Heike Ewers
  • Holger Schulz
  • Zobair M. Younossi



The Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) is a disease-specific instrument designed to assess health-related quality of life in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this paper is to present the psychometric properties of a German version of this questionnaire. A special focus is placed on the analysis of the CLDQ’s factorial structure.


Five hundred and twenty-four patients completed the CLDQ from May 1999 to October 2006. The results were subject to item analysis, reliability and validity assessments, and confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis.


The distribution characteristics on the item and scale level were satisfactory. Internal consistency was good to excellent; retest reliability acceptable. Validity could be confirmed by characteristic subscale correlations with other quality-of-life scales. Confirmatory factor analysis could not sufficiently reproduce the original factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five out of six subscales of the original version and yielded a new subscale: “sleep.”


CLDQ’s reliability and validity have been confirmed. In addition, the demonstrated practical administration of the questionnaire suggests that it should serve as a routine quality of life assessment of patients with chronic liver disease.


Chronic liver disease Liver cirrhosis Disease-specific questionnaire Factor analysis Health-related quality of life Liver transplantation Reliability Validity Living liver donation 



Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire


Health-related quality of life


36-Item Short-Form Health Survey


Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale



This study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (SCHU 974/5-1/2). We thank Susanne Kjer and Stefanie Kraft for their help with data collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Heinz Schulz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sylvia Kroencke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Heike Ewers
    • 1
    • 2
  • Holger Schulz
    • 2
  • Zobair M. Younossi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, Center for Transplantation MedicineUniversity Medical Center EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical Psychology, Center for Psychosocial MedicineUniversity Medical Center EppendorfHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Center for Liver DiseasesInova Fairfax HospitalAnnandaleUSA

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