A further investigation of health-related quality of life over time among men with HIV infection in the HAART era
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This is the third study in a line of research which is designed to increase scientific understanding of the predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among men with HIV infection using data collected in large, prospective cohort study. Building on two prior investigations, this study examined the time-dependent relationships of psychosocial and clinical variables (active coping strategies, social support, CD4 cell count, comorbidity, and duration of HIV infection) and 10 HRQOL dimensions at two time points (baseline and 12 months). Using linear mixed models, we found that most relationships between the psychosocial and clinical variables and HRQOL dimensions were consistent across time. However, there were interactions between time and CD4 cell count and some HRQOL dimensions. Specifically, increased active coping and social support were positively related, whereas more comorbid conditions and longer HIV infection duration were negatively related with multiple HRQOL dimensions at both baseline and 12 months. CD4 cell count was positively associated with emotional well-being at both time points, but the associations between CD4 cell count and five HRQOL dimensions were negative at baseline but positive at 12 months. These findings provide additional support for the recommendation that clinicians and health planners should continually strive to enhance active coping strategies and social support, manage comorbid conditions, and incorporate duration of HIV diagnoses in their treatment plans. Because the relationships between CD4 cell count and HRQOL dimensions varied over time, it is important to recognize that results from laboratory tests (i.e., CD4 cell count) may have differential quality of life implications for patients at various times in their disease trajectories.
KeywordsCoping HIV/AIDS HRQOL Social support
This study is based upon a project supported by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development (VA HSR&D) grants NRI98-182, VA HSR&D RCD 99011, and the research was supported by the U.S. VA Rehabilitation Outcomes Research Center at Gainesville, Florida, USA. We want to thank Dr. W. Bruce Vogel, PhD, for his comments on our statistical analyses, and Gail Dale, MA, for her assistance in preparing the manuscript. Yu Zheng is now with the Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts. The views and opinions expressed in this manuscript reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
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