Advertisement

Quality of Life Research

, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp 1345–1353 | Cite as

The Use of Focus Groups in the Development of the KIDSCREEN HRQL Questionnaire

  • S.B. DetmarEmail author
  • J. Bruil
  • U. Ravens-Sieberer
  • A. Gosch
  • C. Bisegger
  • the European KIDSCREEN group
Article

Abstract

There is increasing interest in the public health sector in the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of healthy children. However, most HRQL instruments are developed for children with a chronic illness. In addition, existing questionnaires are mostly based on expert opinion about what constitutes HRQL and the opinions and views of healthy children are seldom included. In the European project KIDSCREEN, a generic questionnaire was developed for children between the ages of 8 and 18 on the basis of children’s opinions about what constitutes HRQL. Focus group discussions were organised in six European countries to explore the HRQL as perceived by children. There were six groups in each country, stratified by gender and age. The age groups were 8–9 years, 12–13 years, and 16–17 years, with 4–8 children in each group. Experienced moderators guided the discussions. The full discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and content-analysed. The discussions went smoothly, with much lively debate. For the youngest group, the most important aspect of their HRQL was family functioning. For both younger and older adolescents, social functioning, including the relationship with peers, was most important. Children in all groups considered physical and cognitive functioning to be less important than social functioning. These key findings were taken into account when designing the KIDSCREEN HRQL questionnaire for healthy children and adolescents, with more emphasis being placed on drawing up valid scales for family and social functioning. In addition, items were constructed using the language and lay-out preferred by the youngsters themselves. We conclude that focus groups are a useful way of exploring children’s views of HRQL, showing that an emphasis should be placed on constructing valid social and family scales.

Keywords

Qualitative research Focus groups HRQL questionnaire development Children Adolescents 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Eiser C, Morse R (2001) Quality-of-life measures in chronic diseases of childhood. Health Technol Assess 5:1–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajmil L, Herdman M, Fernandez de Sanmamed MJ, Detmar S, Bruil J, Ravens-Sieberer U et al. (2004) Generic health-related quality of life instruments in children and adolescents: a qualitative analysis of content. J Adolesc Health 34:37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Gosch A, Abel T, Auquier P, Bellach BM, Bruil J et al. (2001) Quality of life in children and adolescents: a European public health perspective. Soz Praventivmed 46:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Gosch A, Rajmil L, Erhart M, Bruil J, Duer W, Auquier P, Power M, Abel T, Czemy L, Mazur J, Czimbalos A, Tountas Y, Hagquist C, Klroe J, the European Kidscreen Group (2005) KIDSCREEN-52 quality of life measure for children and adolescents: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 5(3): 353–364CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morgan D, Krueger R, King JA (1998) The focus group guidebooks, vol. 1–6. Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kitzinger J (1995) Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups. BMJ 311:299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heary CM, Hennessy E (2002) The use of focus group interviews in pediatric health care research. J Pediatr Psychol 27:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herdman M, Rajmil L, Ravens-Sieberer U, Bullinger M, Power M, Alonso J (2002) Expert consensus in the development of a European health-related quality of life measure for children and adolescents: a Delphi study. Acta Paediatr. 91:1385–1390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Simeoni MC, Auquier P, Antoniotti S, Sapin C, San Marco JL (2000) Validation of a French health-related quality of life instrument for adolescents: the VSP-A. Qual Life Res 9:393–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Bullinger M (1998) Assessing health-related quality of life in chronically ill children with the German KINDL: first psychometric and content analytical results. Qual.Life Res. 7:399–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Landgraf JM, Maunsell E, Speechley KN, Bullinger M, Campbell S, Abetz L et al. (1998) Canadian-French, German and UK versions of the Child Health Questionnaire: methodology and preliminary item scaling results. Qual Life Res 7:433–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vogels T, Verrips GH, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Fekkes M, Kamphuis RP, Koopman HM et al. (1998) Measuring health-related quality of life in children: the development of the TACQOL parent form. Qual Life Res 7:457–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nosikov A, Gudex C (2003) Erohis: developing common instruments for health surveys. Biomed Health Res 57:18Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canter D, Brown J, Groat L (1985) A multiple sorting procedure for studying condeptual systems. In: Brenner M, Brown J, Canter D (eds) 27th Research interview: uses and approaches. Academic, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gandek B, Ware JE Jr (1998) Methods for validating and norming translations of health status questionnaires: the IQOLA Project approach. International Quality of Life assessment. J Clin Epidemiol 51:953–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • S.B. Detmar
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Bruil
    • 1
  • U. Ravens-Sieberer
    • 2
  • A. Gosch
    • 2
  • C. Bisegger
    • 3
  • the European KIDSCREEN group
  1. 1.Child Health Unit, Prevention and Physical ActivityTNO Quality of LifeLeidenNetherlands
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Health UnitRobert Koch Institute, BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of Social and Preventive MedicineSocial and Behavioural Health ResearchBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations