Quality of Life Research

, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp 1855–1867 | Cite as

Subjective Quality of Life of Community Living Sudanese Psychiatric Patients: Comparison with Family Caregivers’ Impressions and Control Group

  • A. W. Awadalla
  • J. U. OhaeriEmail author
  • A. A. Salih
  • A. M. Tawfiq


Background: Researchers have paid scant attention to comparative studies of quality of life (QOL) issues among psychiatric diagnostic groups; the studies of patient – caregiver concordance ratings had small sample sizes; and the reports are rare from the African and Arab worlds. Objectives: to assess the subjective QOL of stable Sudanese outpatients, using the WHOQOL – Bref, compared with a general population sample; examine the caregiver–patient concordance; and assess the variables that impact on domains of QOL. Method: The responses of outpatients with schizophrenia (99), major affective disorders (120) and neuroses (81) (mean age 33.8) were compared with 211 controls and the impression of their family caregivers. Results: Patients were dissatisfied with life circumstances; the schizophrenia group and those with co-morbidity had significantly lower QOL scores; while the control group had higher QOL scores. There was no significant impact on QOL domains, of socio-demographic factors, duration of illness and treatment side effects. The schizophrenia group had least concordance with caregivers, but eight items were judged to be satisfactorily concordant for all groups. Conclusions: Psychiatric patients in stable condition can make reliable judgments of QOL, with relatives providing additional information. Differences in QOL and concordance of ratings reflect disease severity.


Caregiver Life Psychiatric Quality Sudan 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berlim, MT, Fleck, MP. 2003Quality of life: A brand new concept for research and practice in psychiatryRev Bras Psiquitr.25249252Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, et al. (2004) Disability and quality of life impact of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMED) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl(420): 38–46Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bobes J. (2001) Current status of quality of life assessment in schizophrenic patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Suppl(251): 1138–1142Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Doyle, M, Flanagan, S, Browne, S,  et al. 1999Subjective and external assessments of quality of life in schizophrenia: relationship to insightActa Psychiatr Scand99466472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Khatri, N, Romney, DM, Pelletier, G. 2001Validity of self-reports about quality of life among patients with schizophreniaPsychiatr Serv52534535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Atkinson, M, Zibin, S, Chuang, H. 1997Characterizing quality of life among patients with chronic mental illness: A critical examination of the self-report methodologyAm J Psychiatry15499105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaiser, W, Priebe, S. 1999The impact of the interviewer–interviewee relationship on subjective quality of life ratings in schizophrenia patientsInt J Soc Psychiatry45292301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ritchie, CW, Chiu, E, Harrigan, S,  et al. 2003The impact upon extra-pyramidal side effects, clinical symptoms and quality of life of a switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotics (risperidone or olanzapine) in elderly patients with schizophreniaInt J Geriatr Psychiatr18432440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dubisar, BM, Stoner, SC, Reynolds, J, Khan, R, Ramlatchman, L. 2004Adverse effects of atypical antipsychotic agents and their effects on quality of lifePharmacotherapy24843847CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hofer, A, Kemmler, G, Eder, U, Edlinger, M, Hummer, M, Fleischhacker, WW. 2004Quality of life in schizophrenia: The impact of psychopathology, attitude toward medication, and side effectsJ Clin Psychiatr.65923929Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salome, F, Petitjean, F, Germain, C, Demant, JC. 2004The subjective quality of life of patients with schizophrenia: The influence of psychopathology and patients’ expectations: A comparative studyEncephale306068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuehner, C. 2002Subjective quality of life: Validity issues with depressed patientsActa Psychiatr Scand1066270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huppert, JD, Weiss, KA, Lim, R, Pratt, S, Smith, TE. 2001Quality of life in schizophrenia: Contributions of anxiety and depressionSchizophr Res51171180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cheung, AH, Levitt, AJ, Szalai, JP. 2003Impact of antidepressant side effects on adolescent quality of lifeCan J Psychiatr48727733Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Voruganti, L, Heslegrave, R, Awad, AG, Seeman, MV. 1998Quality of life in schizophrenia: Reconciling the quest for subjectivity with the question of reliabilityPsychol Med28165172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katschnig H. (2000) Schizophrenia and quality of life. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl(407): 33–37Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sainfort, F, Becker, M, Diamond, R. 1996Judgments of quality of life of individuals with severe mental disorders: Patient self-report versus provider perspectivesAm J Psychiatr153497502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fitzgerald, PB, Williams, CL, Corteling, N,  et al. 2001Subject and observer-rated quality of life in schizophreniaActa Psychiatr Scand103387392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lasalvia, A, Ruggeri, M, Santolini, N. 2002Subjective quality of life: its relationship with clinician-rated and patient-rated psychopathologyPsychother Psychosom71275284The South Verona Outcome Project 6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lobana, A, Mattoo, SK, Basu, D, Gupta, N. 2001Quality of life in schizophrenia in India: Comparison of three approachesActa Psychiatr Scand1045154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Awad, AG, Voruganti, LN, Heslegrave, RJ. 1997A conceptual model of quality of life in schizophrenia: Description and preliminary clinical validationQual Life Res62126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olusina, AK, Ohaeri, JU. 2003Subjective quality of life of recently discharged Nigerian psychiatric patientsSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol38707714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Green, CA, Finn, DS, Moussaoui, D, Kadri, N, Hoffman, WF. 2001Quality of life in treated and never treated schizophrenic patientsActa Psychiatr Scand103131142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lochner, C, Mogotsi, M, du Toit, PL, Kaminer, D, Niehaus, DJ, Stein, DJ. 2003Quality of life in anxiety disorders: A comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorderPsychopathology36255262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koivumaa-Honkanen, HT, Honkanen, R, Antikainen, R, Hintikka, J, Viinamaki, H. 1999Self reported life satisfaction and treatment factors in patients with schizophrenia, major depression and anxiety disorderActa Psychiatr Scand99377384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barbato, A, Monzani, E, Schiavi, T. 2004Life satisfaction in a sample of outpatients with severe mental disorders: A survey in northern ItalyQual Life Res13969973CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    The WHOQOL Group.1998The WHO Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric propertiesSoc Sci Med4615691585Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Skevington, SM Lotfy, M O’Connell, KA WHOQOL Group.2004The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL – Bref quality of life assessment: Psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL groupQual Life Res13299310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Landis, RJ, Koch, GG. 1977The measurement of observer agreement for categorical dataBiometrics33159174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCall, WV, Dunn, A, Rosenquist, PB. 2004Quality of life and function after electroconvulsive therapyBr J Psychiatry185405409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heinz, M, Taylor, RE, Priebe, S, Thornicroft, G. 1997The quality of life of patients with paranoid schizophrenia in London and BerlinSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol32292297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gaite, L, Vazquez-Barquero, JL, Borra, C,  et al. 2002Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: The EPSILON studyActa Psychiatr Scand105283292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jarema, M, Konieczynska, Z. 2000Quality of life in schizophrenic patients treated with classic and “old” atypical neurolepticsPsychiatr Pol34275288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ritsner, M, Ponizovsky, A, Endicott, J,  et al. 2002The impact of side effects of antipsychotic agents on life satisfaction of schizophrenia patients: A naturalistic studyEur Neuropsychopharm123138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ritsner, M, Modai, I, Endicott, J,  et al. 2000Differences in quality of life domains and psychopathologic and psychosocial factors in psychiatric patientsJ Clin Psychiatry61880889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bengtsson-Tops, A, Hansson, L. 1999Subjective quality of life in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to clinical and social characteristicsEur Psychiatry14256263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gupta, S, Kulhara, P, Verma, SK. 1998Quality of life in schizophrenia and dysthymiaActa Psychiatr Scand97290296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sciolla, A, Patterson, TL, Wetherell, JL, McAdams, LA, Jeste, DV. 2003Functioning and well-being of middle aged and older patients with schizophrenia: measurement with the 36-item short form (SF-36) health surveyAm J Geriatr Psychiatr11629637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ritsner, M. 2003Predicting changes in domain specific quality of life of schizophrenia patientsJ Nerv Ment Dis191287294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. W. Awadalla
    • 1
  • J. U. Ohaeri
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. A. Salih
    • 3
  • A. M. Tawfiq
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineKuwait UniversityKuwait
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryPsychological Medicine HospitalSafatKuwait
  3. 3.Khartoum Teaching HospitalSudan

Personalised recommendations