Retraction Note: An architecture of agent-based multi-layer interactive e-learning and e-testing platform
1 Retraction Note: Qual Quant (2015) 49:2435–2458 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0121-9
The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article (Arif et al. 2015) because validity of the content of this article cannot be verified. This article showed evidence of peer review and authorship manipulation. Authors Muhammad Arif, Ahmad Karim, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Khubaib Amjad Alam, Shahid Farid, Salman Iqbal do not agree to this retraction. Authors Manzoor Illahi, Zolkepli Buang, Valentina Emilia Balas have not responded to any correspondence from the editor or publisher about this retraction.