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Retraction Note: An architecture of agent-based multi-layer interactive e-learning and e-testing platform

  • Muhammad ArifEmail author
  • Manzoor Illahi
  • Ahmad Karim
  • Shahaboddin Shamshirband
  • Khubaib Amjad Alam
  • Shahid Farid
  • Salman Iqbal
  • Zolkepli Buang
  • Valentina Emilia Balas
Retraction Note

1 Retraction Note: Qual Quant (2015) 49:2435–2458  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0121-9

The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article (Arif et al. 2015) because validity of the content of this article cannot be verified. This article showed evidence of peer review and authorship manipulation. Authors Muhammad Arif, Ahmad Karim, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Khubaib Amjad Alam, Shahid Farid, Salman Iqbal do not agree to this retraction. Authors Manzoor Illahi, Zolkepli Buang, Valentina Emilia Balas have not responded to any correspondence from the editor or publisher about this retraction.

Notes

Reference

  1. Arif, M., Illahi, M., Karim, A., Shamshirband, S., Alam, K.A., Farid, S., Iqbal, S., Buang, Z., Balas, V.E.: An architecture of agent-based multi-layer interactive e-learning and e-testing platform. Qual. Quant. 49, 2435–2458 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-014-0121-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Arif
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Manzoor Illahi
    • 2
  • Ahmad Karim
    • 1
  • Shahaboddin Shamshirband
    • 3
    • 4
  • Khubaib Amjad Alam
    • 1
  • Shahid Farid
    • 1
  • Salman Iqbal
    • 1
  • Zolkepli Buang
    • 5
  • Valentina Emilia Balas
    • 6
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceCOMSATS Institute of Information Technology IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer System and TechnologyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Computer Science, Chalous BranchIslamic Azad University (IAU)ChalousIran
  5. 5.Universiti Teknikal Malaysia MelakaDurian TunggalMalaysia
  6. 6.Department of Automation and Applied InformaticsUniversity of AradAradRomania

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