Advertisement

Exploring the Sukur cultural landscape in Adamawa State of Nigeria: a methodological discussion

  • Eyisi Afamefuna
  • Emeka E. OkonkwoEmail author
Article
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

The Sukur Kingdom, one of the ethnic groups located in the west of the Mandara Mountains is within the Sukur District of the Madagali North Development Area in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Sukur Kingdom flourished between the early 16th and late 18th centuries as a cultural landscape. In 1999, Sukur cultural landscape became a world heritage site (WHS) and the first to be named in Nigeria. However, the survival of the cultural landscape is in serious doubt, especially with the recent spate of terrorist attacks which have ravaged the northeastern region of Nigeria. This is more worrisome because not many research have been conducted in the area to highlight and document the tourism potentials of the landscape, to help spur more attention. In this paper, we narrate how we conducted our ethnographic fieldwork, selected and interacted with respondents within the Sukur Kingdom and other key stakeholders in the area to help understand the context of the WHS. We also try to share how our ontology and epistemology influenced and guided our research approach during our fieldwork while we equally argue for more rigorous qualitative research to be conducted in the study area as this would contribute to public awareness.

Keywords

Sukur Kingdom Tourism Ethnography Development World heritage site 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no potential conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights statement

The research is not involved in Human Participants and/or Animals.

References

  1. Adebayo, A.A.: The Agro-climatology of rice production in Adamawa State. A Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna (1997)Google Scholar
  2. Barth, H.: Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa 1849–1855. Harper, New York (1857)Google Scholar
  3. Barth, H.: Travels and discoveries in North and Central Africa. A Journal of an expedition undertaken under the auspices of H.B.M’s government in the years 1849–1855. 3 Vols. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited (1965)Google Scholar
  4. Bhattacherjee, A.: Social science research: principles, methods, and practices. Textbooks Collection. Book 3. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3 (2012). Accessed 15 Feb 2013
  5. Blaisdell, C.: Putting reflexivity into practice: experiences from ethnographic fieldwork. Ethics Soc. Welf. 9(1), 83–91 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boisseau, J., Soula, M.: La femme dans sa communaute territoriale: Clef du cosmos mafa. (Cameroun Septentrional). 3 Vols. Memoire du centre de recherches cooperatives, 46 Paris: Bureau d’Etudes Cooperatives et Communautaires (1974)Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, G.: Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qual. Res. J. 9(2), 27–40 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breen, L.: The researcher ‘in the middle’: negotiating the insider/outsider dichotomy. Aust. Commun. Psychol. 19(1), 163–174 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. Camprubi, R., Coromina, L.: Content analysis in tourism research. Tour. Manag. Perspect. 18, 134–140 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, M., Riley, M., Wood, R., Wilkie, E.: Researching and Writing Dissertation in Hospitality and Tourism. International Thomson Business Press, London (1998)Google Scholar
  11. David, N.: The ethnoarchaeology and field archaeology of grinding at Sukur, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Afr. Archaeol. Rev. 15(1), 13–63 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. David, N., Sterner, J.: Constructing a historical ethnography of Sukur, part I: demystification. Niger. Herit. 4, 11–33 (1995)Google Scholar
  13. David, N., Sterner, J.: Constructing a historical ethnography of Sukur (Adamawa State), part II: iron and the classless industrial society. Niger. Herit. 5, 11–33 (1996)Google Scholar
  14. Denham, D.: Major Denham’s narrative. In: Bovill, E. (ed.) Missions to the Niger. The Bornu Mission 1822–25, vol. III, pp. 317–536. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society, London (1966)Google Scholar
  15. Eboreime, J.: Sukur cultural landscape of Nigeria: a challenge to conservation management. UNESCO Cultural Landscape: The Challenges of Conservation. Published by UNESCO. World Heritage Centre, pp. 144–146 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. Fielding, N.: Ethnography. In: Gilbert, N. (ed.) Researching Social Life. Sage, London (1993)Google Scholar
  17. Genest, S.: Savoir traditionnel chez le forgerons mafa. Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines 8(3), 495–516 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hinderling, P.: Die mafa: ethnographie eines kirdi-Stammes in Nordkamerum.Band I—Soziala und Religiose Strukturen, Band 3—Materialen. Hannover: Verlag Fur Ethnologie. Retrieved 20 Nov 2010 from http://whc.unesco.org/exhibits/cultland/categories.htm (1984)
  19. Holloway, I., Brown, L., Shipway, R.: Meaning not measurement: using ethnography to bring a deeper understanding to the participant experience of festivals and events. Int. J. Event Festiv. Manag. 1(1), 74–85 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Juillerat, B.: Les bases de I’ organization sociale chez les mouktele (Nord Cameroun): Structures Lignageres et Mariage. Memoires de I’Institute de I’Ethnologie, 8. Paris. Universite de Paris (1971)Google Scholar
  21. Kinjir, S.: Establishment of sustainable management plan for the Conservation of Sukur Cultural Landscape World Heritage Site. A Paper Present During a Workshop Organized by NCMM on the Theme “Wise Use of Heritage” in Gulak, Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State on 1st–3rd November 2001 (2001)Google Scholar
  22. Knauft, B.: South Coast New Guinea Culture: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin, J.: Les matakam du Cameroun: essai la dynamique d’une societe Pre- Industrielle. Memories ORSTOM, 41. Paris: ORSTOM (1970)Google Scholar
  24. Meek, C.: Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria, p. 2. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company Limited, London (1931)Google Scholar
  25. Muller-Kosack, G.: ‘Der weg des bieres: Siedlungs and sozialstruktur in Funf Mafa-Dorfern (Nordkamerun). M.A. Thesis, Johann-Wofgang—Goethe Universitat (1987)Google Scholar
  26. Muller-Kosack, G.: Cived zom: Studie zur historizitat der mafa nordkameruns. Ph.D. Thesis, Johnann-Wolfgang—Goethe Universitat (1997)Google Scholar
  27. Muller-Kosack, G.: The Way of the Beer: Ritual Re-enactment of History Among the Mafa. Terrace Famers of the Mandara Mountains (North Cameroon). Mandaras Publishing, London (2003)Google Scholar
  28. National Commission for Museums and Monuments: Sukur Cultural Landscape, Adamawa State, Nigeria. UNESCO World Heritage Site. Management and business plans: 2006–2011 cycle. NCMM, Abuja; NTDC, Abubarkar Tafawa Belewa University; and ASAMM (2006)Google Scholar
  29. National Population Commission: 2006 Nigerian Census. Retrieved 27 June 2012 from www.population.gov.ng (2006)
  30. Okonkwo, E.E.: Sukur cultural landscape and its contributions to tourism development in Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. P.4 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. Okpoko, P.U., Ezeh, P.J.: Methods in Qualitative Research, 2nd edn. Great AP Express Publishers Ltd., Nsukka (2011)Google Scholar
  32. Okpoko, P.U., Okonkwo, E.: Heritage management and tourism in the Obudu Cattle Ranch and Sukur Kingdom, Nigeria. CRM J. Herit. Steward. 2, 2. Summer. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Washington, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  33. O’Reilley, K.: Insider ethnographies. In: O’Reilley, K. (ed.) Key Concepts in Ethnography. Sage Publications Limited, London (2012)Google Scholar
  34. Patton, Q.: Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd edn. Saga Publication, London (1990)Google Scholar
  35. Rallis, S., Rossman, G.: The research journey: introduction to inquiry, 1st edn. Guilford press, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  36. Roller, M., Lavrakas, P.: Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach. Guildford Press, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  37. Russell-Mundine, G.: Reflexivity in indigenous research: reframing and decolonizing research? J. Hosp. Tour. Manag. 19, 1–6 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sassoon, H.: Iron smelting in the hill village of Sukur, North Eastern Nigeria. Man 64, 174–178 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sterner, J.: The Ways of the Mandara Mountains: A Comparative Regional Approach, p. 179. Rudiger Koppe Verlag Publication, Cologne (2003)Google Scholar
  40. Sterner J. (1998). The ways of the Mandara Mountains: a comparative regional approach. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Valandra, V.: Reflexivity and professional use of self in research: a doctoral student’s journey. J. Ethnogr. Qual. Res. 6, 204–220 (2012)Google Scholar
  42. Veal, A.: Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide, 2nd edn, pp. 80–105. Prentice Hall, London (1997)Google Scholar
  43. Vincent, J.: Princes Montagnards du Nord—Cameroun. Les Mofu—Diamare et le Pouvoir Politique. Paris: Editions L’Harmattan (1991)Google Scholar
  44. Von Graffonried, C.: Das Jahr des stieresi ein opferritual der zulgo und gemjek in Nordkamerun, Freiburg. Universitatsverlag, Studia Ethnographica Friburgensia, p. 11 (1984)Google Scholar
  45. Zhang, J.: The irreducible ethics in reflexivity: rethinking reflexivity in conducting ethnography in Shangri-la, Southwest China. Tour. Cult. Commun. 17, 19–30 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zikmund, W.: Business Research Methods, 7th edn. Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tourism and Event Program, School of ArtsMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Archaeology and TourismUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations