Renewable and non-renewable energy and trade into developed and developing countries
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Our paper examines the linkage among both renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and trade for a sample including 72 countries divided into two groups, namely developed and developing countries, over the period 1990–2012. Our results reveal a bi-directional linkage between the two sorts of energy consumption and trade in both developed and developing countries. In terms of economic policy, this study suggests that policy makers should adopt some reforms such as fiscal’s incentives, institutional quality improvement, and international cooperation in order to benefit from the trade openness, enhance renewable energy consumption, and ameliorate the non-renewable energy efficiency.
KeywordsTrade Non-renewable energy consumption Renewable energy consumption Dynamic panel data models
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