Advertisement

Quality & Quantity

, Volume 51, Issue 5, pp 2085–2100 | Cite as

Entrepreneurial attributes for success in the small hotel sector: a fuzzy-set QCA approach

  • Andrea Rey-Martí
  • J. Augusto Felício
  • Ricardo Rodrigues
Article
  • 353 Downloads

Abstract

By examining small hotels in Spain, this research contributes to understanding how human capital, social capital, and contingency factors interact to build a success model based on high hotel occupancy rates, profit, and profit per employee. Human capital theory, social capital theory, and multilevel theory provide the theoretical basis for this research. The study used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis applied to a sample of 51 small Spanish hotels. The results reveal the existence of different configurations that lead to the desired performance outcomes. Each configuration combines two or three causal conditions. The results also reflect the difficulties that small hotels may face in reconciling different performance objectives. This paper thus provides solutions for managers, who must make strategic decisions based on existing conditions both inside and outside their organisations. The findings discussed herein can thus help small hotels better define their performance objectives by considering their individual characteristics. The findings can also help new small hotel entrepreneurs better understand the conditions required for success in this highly competitive market.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Human capital Social capital Contingency factors Small hotels 

References

  1. Alvarez, G.J., Burgos, J.J., Céspedes, L.J.: An analysis of environmental management, organizational context and performance of Spanish hotels. Omega 29(6), 457–471 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baron, A., Armstrong, M.: Human Capital Management: Achieving Added Value Through People. Kogan Page, London (2007)Google Scholar
  3. Baum, T.: Skills and training for the hospitality sector: a review of issues. J. Vocat. Educ. Train. 54(3), 343–363 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, G.S.: Human Capital Theory. Columbia, New York (1964)Google Scholar
  5. Bednarska, M.A.: Complementary Person-Environment Fit as a Predictor of Job Pursuit Intentions in the Service Industry. Contemp. Econ. 10(1), 27–38 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatti, M.I., Awan, H.M., Razaq, Z.: The key performance indicators (KPIs) and their impact on overall organizational performance. Qual. Quant. 48(6), 3127–3143 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blundell, R., Dearden, L., Meghir, C., Sianesi, B.: Human capital investment: the returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy. Fisc. Stud. 20(1), 1–23 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colombo, E., Stanca. L.: The Impact of Training on Productivity: Evidence from a Large Panel of Firms, Vol. 134 (2008) Retrieved from http://boa.unimib.it/bitstream/10281/23176/1/The_Impact_of_Training_on_Productivity.pdf
  9. Cova, M.I., Rodríguez-Monroy, C.: A fuzzy set scale approach to value workers participation and learning. J. Innov. Knowl. 1(3), 133–143 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davidson, M.G., Wang, Y.: Sustainable labour practices? Hotel human resource managers views on turnover and skill shortages. J. Hum. Resour. Hosp. Tour. 10(3), 235–253 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidsson, P., Honig, B.: The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. J. Bus. Ventur. 18(3), 301–331 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DiPietro, R.B.: Human capital development: a return on investment perspective. In: Tesone, D.V. (ed.) Handbook of Hospitality Human Resources Management, pp. 347–372. Butterwork-Heinmann, Oxford (2008)Google Scholar
  13. Eaglen, A., Lashley, C., Thomas, R.: Modelling the benefits of training to business performance in leisure retailing. Strateg. Change 9(5), 311–325 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Felício, J.A., Couto, E., Caiado, J.: Human capital, social capital and organizational performance: a structural modelling approach. Manag. Decis. 52(2), 350–364 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feurer, S., Baumbach, E., Woodside, A.G.: Applying configurational theory to build a typology of ethnocentric consumers. Int. Market. Rev. 33(3), 351–375 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. Fiss, P.C.: A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Acad. Manag. Rev. 32(4), 1180–1198 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fiss, P.C.: Building better causal theories: a fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Acad. Manag. J. 54(2), 393–420 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Florin, J., Lubatkin, M., Schulze, W.: A social capital model of high-growth ventures. Acad. Manag. J. 46(3), 374–384 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. George, D., Mallery, M.: Using SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference (2003)Google Scholar
  20. Getz, D., Carlsen, J.: Characteristics and goals of family and owner-operated businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors. Tour. Manag. 21(6), 547–560 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilbert, D. C., Powell-Perry, J.: A current overview of web based marketing within the hotel industry. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Tourism in Southeast Asia and Indo-China (2000), pp. 24–26Google Scholar
  22. Greckhamer, T., Misangyi, V., Elms, H., Lacey, R.: Using qualitative comparative analysis in strategic management research: an examination of combinations of industry, corporate, and business-unit effects. Organ. Res. Methods 11(4), 695–726 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grissemann, U., Plank, A., Brunner-Sperdin, A.: Enhancing business performance of hotels: the role of innovation and customer orientation. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. 33, 347–356 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta, S., Zeitham, V.: Customer metrics and their impact on financial performance. Market. Sci. 25(6), 718–739 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haber, S., Reichel, A.: Identifying performance measures of small ventures-the case of the tourism industry. J. Small Bus. Manage. 43(3), 257 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hair, J.F.: Multivariate data analysis. Pearson College Division, London (2010)Google Scholar
  27. Hatch, J., Zweig, J.: DEPARTMENTS-ENTREPRENEURS-What is the stuff of an entrepreneur? Ivey Bus. J. 65(2), 68–72 (2000)Google Scholar
  28. Hendry, C., Arthur, M.B., Jones, A.M.: Strategy Through People: Adaptation and Learning in the Small-Medium Enterprise. Routledge, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  29. Heskett, J.L., Jones, T.O., Loveman, G.W., Sasser, W.E., Schlesinger, L.A.: Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Bus. Rev. 72, 164–174 (1994)Google Scholar
  30. Hewitt-Dundas, N., Roper, S.: Creating advantage in peripheral regions: the role of publicly funded R&D centres. Res. Policy 40(6), 832–841 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hill, R., Stewart, J.: Human resource development in small organizations. J. Eur. Ind. Train. 24(2/3/4), 105–117 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hosteltur. Accessed on 23/02/2015. http://www.hosteltur.com/
  33. House, R., Rousseau, D.M., Thomas-Hunt, M.: The meso paradigm: A framework for the integration of micro and macro organizational behavior. In: Cummings, L.L., Staw, B.M. (eds.) Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 17, pp. 71–114. JAI Press, Greenwich (1995)Google Scholar
  34. Ingram, P., Roberts, P.W.: Friendships among competitors in the Sydney Hotel Industry1. Am. J. Sociol. 106(2), 387–423 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). Spanish Statistical Office. Accessed on 23/02/2015. http://www.ine.es/
  36. Karatepe, O.M., Sokmen, A.: The effects of work role and family role variables on psychological and behavioural outcomes of frontline employees. Tour. Manag. 27(2), 255–268 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kilduff, M., Tsai, W.: Social Networks and Organizations. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klein, K.J., Kozlowski, S.W.: Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations: Foundations, Extensions, and New Directions. Jossey-Bass, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  39. Lado-Sestayo, R., Vivel-Búa, M., Otero-González, L., Neira-Gómez, I.: Barreras al emprendimiento hotelero: un análisis sectorial. Tour. Manag. Stud. 11(2), 86–92 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lashley, C.: The right answers to the wrong questions? Observations on skill development and training in the United Kingdom’s hospitality sector. Tour. Hosp. Res. 9(4), 340–352 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Law, R., Jogaratnam, G.: A study of hotel information technology applications. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 17(2), 170–180 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Law, R., Ng, C.: Marketing strategies for small hotels: the case of Cheung Chau in Hong Kong. Asia Pac. J. Tour. Res. 16(1), 21–38 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leana, C.R., Van Buren, H.J.: Organizational social capital and employment practices. Acad. Manag. Rev. 24(3), 538–555 (1999)Google Scholar
  44. Lee, C.S., Chen, Y.C., Tsui, P.L., Yu, T.H.: Examining the relations between open innovation climate and job satisfaction with a PLS path model. Qual. Quant. 48(3), 1705–1722 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee, M.T., Raschke, R.L.: Understanding employee motivation and organizational performance: arguments for a set-theoretic approach. J. Innov. Knowl. 1, 162–169 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lester, R.H., Hillman, A., Zardkoohi, A., Cannella, A.A.: Former government officials as outside directors: the role of human and social capital. Acad. Manag. J. 51(5), 999–1013 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liao, J., Welsch, H.: Roles of social capital in venture creation: key dimensions and research implications. J. Small Bus. Manage. 43(4), 345–362 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lin, N.: Building a network: theory of social capital. Connections 22(1), 28–51 (1999)Google Scholar
  49. Loan-Clarke, J., Boocock, G., Smith, A., Whittaker, J.: Investment in management training and development by small businesses. Empl. Relat. 21(3), 296–311 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ma, J.X.K., Buhalis, D., Song, H.: ICTs and Internet adoption in China’s tourism industry. Int. J. Inf. Manage. 23, 451–467 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marchante, A.J., Ortega, B.: Human capital and labour productivity: a study for the hotel industry. Cornell Hosp. Quart. 53(1), 20–30 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mattson, J., Sundbo, J., Fussing-Jensen, C.: Innovation systems in tourism: the roles of attractors and scene-takers. Ind. Innov. 12(3), 357–381 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McCabe, V.S., Savery, L.K.: Butterflying: a new career pattern from Australia? Empirical evidence. J. Manag. Dev. 26(3), 182–188 (2007)Google Scholar
  54. McDougall, P., Robinson, R.B., DeNisi, A.: Modeling new venture performance: an analysis of new venture strategy, industry structure, and venture origin. J. Bus. Ventur. 7, 267–289 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McKercher, B., Robbins, B.: Business development issues affecting nature-based tourism operators in Australia. J. Sustain. Tour. 6(2), 173–188 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Medrano, N., Olarte-Pascual, C.: An empirical approach to marketing innovation in small and medium retailers: an application to the Spanish sector. Contemp. Econ. 10, 3 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mincer, J., Polacheck, S.: Family investments in human capital Earnings of women. In: Economics of the Family Marriage, Children, and Human Capital (pp. 397–431). University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1974)Google Scholar
  58. Mutch, A.: Using information technology. In: Thomas, R. (ed.) The Management of Small Tourism and Hospitality Firms, pp. 92–206. Cassell, London (1998)Google Scholar
  59. Myint, Y.M., Vyakarnam, S., New, M.J.: The effect of social capital in new venture creation: the Cambridge high-technology cluster. Strateg. Change 14(3), 165–177 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nadeem, M.: Role of training in determining the employee corporate behavior with respect to organizational productivity: developing and proposing a conceptual model. Int. J. Bus. Manag. 5(12), 206–211 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Namasivayam, K., Denizci, B.: Human capital in service organizations: identifying value drivers. J. Intell. Cap. 7(3), 381–393 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neergaard, H., Madsen, H.: Knowledge intensive entrepreneurship in a social capital perspective. J. Enterp. Cult. 12(02), 105–125 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., Wright, P.M.: Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, Global edn. McGrawHill Irwin, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  64. Nolan, C.: Human resource development in the Irish hotel industry: the case of the small firm. J. Eur. Ind. Train. 26(2), 88–99 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Orfila-Sintes, F., Mattsson, J.: Innovation behavior in the hotel industry. Omega 37(2), 380–394 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Orfila-Sintesa, F., Crespi-Cladera, R., Martinez-Ros, E.: Innovation activity in the hotel industry: evidence from Balearic Islands. Tour. Manag. 26(6), 851–865 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ottenbacher, M.: Innovation Management. Handbook of Hospitality Operations and IT, pp. 340–366. Elsevier Ltd, Oxford (2008)Google Scholar
  68. Phillips, P.A.: Strategic planning and business performance in the quoted UK hotel sector: results of an exploratory study. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. 15(4), 347–362 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pine, J., Gilmore, J.: The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (1999)Google Scholar
  70. Poon, A.: Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies. CAB International, Wallingford (1993)Google Scholar
  71. Portes, A.: Social capital: it’s origins and applications in contemporary society. Ann. Rev. Sociol. 24, 1–24 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Portes, A.: The two meanings of social capital. In Sociological Forum. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 15(1), 1–12 (2000)Google Scholar
  73. Putnam, R.D.: Tuning in, tuning out: the strange disappearance of social capital in America. P S Polit. Sci. Polit. 28(4), 664–683 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Quinn, U., Larmour, R., McQuillan, N.: The small firm in the hospitality industry. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 4, 1 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ragin, C.C., Davey, S.: Fuzzy-Set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis 25. Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine (2014)Google Scholar
  76. Ragin, C.C.: Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ram, M., Holliday, R.: Relative merits: family culture and kinship in small firms. Sociology 27(4), 629–648 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ribeiro, D.: Customers’ expectations factors in restaurants: the situation in Spain. Int. J. Qual. Reliab. Manag. 19(8/9), 1055–1067 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ribeiro, D.: Total quality management: applying the European model to Spain’s urban hotels. Cornell Hotel. Restaur. Adm. Q. 40(1), 54–59 (1999)Google Scholar
  80. Ritchie, J.B., Crouch, G.I.: The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective. Cabi, Wallingford (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A.: Organisational Behaviour, 13th edn. Pearson International Edition, Upper Saddle River (2009)Google Scholar
  82. Schneider, M.R., Schulze-Bentrop, C., Paunescu, M.: Mapping the institutional capital of high-tech firms: a fuzzy-set analysis of capitalist variety and export performance. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 41(2), 246–266 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sharpley, R.: The influence of the accommodation sector on tourism development: lessons from Cyprus. Int. J. Hosp. Manag. 19(3), 275–293 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Somerville, W.: Immigration Under New Labour. The Policy Press, Bristol (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tesone, D.V.: Human Resource Management in Hospitality Industry. Prentice Hall, Upper saddle river (2005)Google Scholar
  86. Tews, M.J., Tracey, J.B.: Helping managers help themselves: the use and utility of on-the-job interventions to improve the impact of interpersonal skill training. Cornell Hosp. Q. 50(2), 245–258 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tseng, C., Kuo, H., Chou, S.: Configuration of innovation and performance in the service industry: evidence from the Taiwanese hotel Industry. Serv. Ind. J. 28(7), 1015–1028 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Walker, G., Kogut, B., Shan, W.: Social capital, structural holes and the formation of an industry network. Organ. Sci. 8(2), 109–125 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Warech, M., Tracey, B.J.: Evaluating the impact of human resources—identifying what matters. Cornell Hotel Restaur. Adm. Q. 45(4), 376–387 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Woodside, A.G., Ko, E., Huan, T.C.: The new logic in building isomorphic theory of management decision realities. Manag. Decis. 50(5), 765–777 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Woodside, A.G.: Moving beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithms: calling for adoption of a paradigm shift from symmetric to asymmetric thinking in data analysis and crafting theory. J. Bus. Res. 66(4), 463–472 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. World Tourism Organization (WTO): http://www2.unwto.org/es (2000). Accessed 23 Feb 2015
  93. Yang, H. O.: Human Resource Management in Hotel Industry in Taiwan. Unpublished DBA Thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (2007)Google Scholar
  94. Yolal, M., Çetinel, F., Uysal, M.: An examination of festival motivation and perceived benefits relationship: eskişehir International Festival. J. Conven. Event Tour. 10(4), 276–291 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  2. 2.ISEG – Lisbon School of Economics and ManagementUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Centre for Management StudiesISEG – Lisbon School of Economics and ManagementLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations