Quality & Quantity

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 2847–2867

Contradictions in fsQCA


DOI: 10.1007/s11135-012-9694-3

Cite this article as:
Rubinson, C. Qual Quant (2013) 47: 2847. doi:10.1007/s11135-012-9694-3


The lack of support for contradictions in fsQCA limits the method’s usefulness for conducting inductive research. In this paper, I describe how to extend fsQCA to accommodate contradictory conditions. I review kirq (Reichert and Rubinson 2011), a new software package for QCA that includes support for fuzzy-set contradictions. For researchers using software that does not support fuzzy-set contradictions, I describe how to identify them by hand.


Qualitative comparative analysis Fuzzy sets Contradictions Comparative research Kirq 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social SciencesUniversity of Houston–DowntownHoustonUSA

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