Quality & Quantity

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 859–873 | Cite as

Mixing quantitative and qualitative content analysis: triangulation at work

  • Anton OleinikEmail author
Research Note


The paper discusses an original path model for triangulating the results of three types of content analysis: (i) the analysis of the co-occurrence of words; (ii) the substitution model of quantitative content analysis and (iii) qualitative coding. The model refers to the “within method” as well as the “between methods” of triangulation. It shows how this model helps assess the reliability and validity of content analysis. In the former case, the text is used as a unit of analysis; in the latter—the variable (theme, category or qualitative code). The model is tested on two sets of transcripts of semi-structured (N = 64) and unstructured (N = 43) interviews carried out independently by two research teams. Outcomes of the test show consistent patterns in both cases. Some directions for further explorations are discussed, including latent qualitative analysis.


Triangulation Qualitative content analysis Quantitative content analysis Path model Reliability Validity Semiotics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bakhtin, M.: Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo. Sovetskaia Rossiia, Moskva (1979) [Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics]Google Scholar
  2. Basilevsky A.: Statistical factor analysis and related methods. Wiley, New York (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bibler, V.: Mikail Mikhailovich Bakhtin, ili Poetika Kultury. Progress, Moskva (1991) [Mikhail Bakhtin, or Poetics of Culture]Google Scholar
  4. Bryman A.: Social research methods, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2004)Google Scholar
  5. Derrida J.: De la grammatologie. Editions de la Minuit, Paris (1967)Google Scholar
  6. Dexter L.A.: Elite and specialized interviewing, 2nd edn. ECPR Press, Colchester (2006)Google Scholar
  7. Eco U.: Introduction. In: Lotman, Y. (ed.) Universe of the mind: a semiotic theory of culture., pp. vii–xiii. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis (1990)Google Scholar
  8. Ermakov, S., Kim, I., Mikhailova, T, Osetrova, E. and Sukhovol’skij: Vlast’ v russkoj iazykovoj i ethnicheskoj kartine mira. Znak, Moskva (2004) [Power in the Russian linguistic and ethnical world view]Google Scholar
  9. Geertz C.: Works and lives: the anthropologist as author. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA (1988)Google Scholar
  10. Gray J., Densten I.: Integrating quantitative and qualitative analysis using latent and manifest variables. Quality & Quantity 32, 419–431 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grossman D., Frieder O.: Information retrieval: algorithms and heuristics, 2nd edn. Springer, Dordrecht (2004)Google Scholar
  12. Gudkov, L., Dubin, B. and Levada, Y.: Problema “elity” v segodniashnei Rossii: razmyshleniia nad rezul’tatami sotsiologitcheskogo issledovaniia. Fond “Liberal’naia Missiia”, Moskva (2007) [Problem of the elite in today’s Russia: discussing results of a sociological study]Google Scholar
  13. Hogenaraad R., McKenzie D., Péladeau N.: Force and influence in content analysis: the production of new social knowledge. Quality & Quantity 37, 221–238 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jick T.: Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly 24, 602–611 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lotman Y.: Universe of the mind: a semiotic theory of culture. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis (1990)Google Scholar
  16. Mills W.C.: The power elite. Oxford University Press, New York (1957)Google Scholar
  17. Neuendorf K.A.: The content analysis guidebook. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, London and New Delhi (2002)Google Scholar
  18. Oleinik, A. (ed.): Reforming the state without changing the model of power? On administrative reform in post-socialist countries. Routledge, London and New York (2008)Google Scholar
  19. Roberts C.: A conceptual framework for quantitative text analysis. Quality and Quantity 34, 259–274 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Salton G., McGill M.: Introduction to modern information retrieval. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1983)Google Scholar
  21. Skinner Q.: Visions of politics regarding method, vol 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  22. Warner R.M.: Applied statistics: from bivariate through multivariate techniques. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA (2008)Google Scholar
  23. Weber, M.: Economy and society: an outline of interpretative sociology. In: Roth, G. and Wittich, C. (eds.) Bedminster Press, New York (1968 [1922])Google Scholar
  24. White M.D., Marsh E.E.: Content analysis: a flexible methodology. Library trends 1(55), 22–45 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of sociologyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Economics of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations