Quality & Quantity

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 459–482 | Cite as

Antecedents of employee involvement with the comparative model

  • Wen-Bao Lin


Instead of discussing employee’s performance that previous researchers emphasized in their studies on the work behavior of employees, this study analyzes employee involvement from the viewpoint of their emotional labor, organizational culture, and the intimacy relationships between employees and their supervisors. Large-scale financial holding conglomerates in Taiwan and subsidiaries of Hong Kong-based conglomerates were selected as the populations for the research. The result of the empirical analysis indicates that emotional labor has a significantly positive effect on the involvement of employees; the stronger the intimacy relationship between employees and their supervisors is, the higher the employee involvement will be, strong culture has a significantly negative effect on the involvement of employees, and there is a significant difference in a number of dimensions among some Chinese enterprises in Taiwan & Hong Kong. This study has the following characteristics in comparison with the previous studies: (1) The theoretical structure of this study is formed based on an integrated prospect of internal organizational structure, personal factors of employees and their interpersonal relationship; (2) the study focuses on a comparative study of regional enterprises, which was seldom emphasized in literature; (3) the study uses the Non-Linear Fuzzy Neural Network Model and multivariate analysis approach as tools for the research and may contribute more to the theory in this field.


Emotional labor Intimacy relationship Employee involvement 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abraham C.: The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: an examination among senior mangers. J. Managerial Psychol. 18(8), 788–813 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvesson M., Berg P.O.: Corporate culture and organization symbolism. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin (1986)Google Scholar
  3. Babin B.J., Boles J.S.: The effects of perceived co-worker involvement and supervisor on service provider role stress, performance and job satisfaction. J. Retail. 72(1), 57–75 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blau P.M.: Exchange and Power in Social Life. John Wiley and Sons, New York (1964)Google Scholar
  5. Bond M.H., Hwang K.K.: The social psychology of Chinese people. In: Bond, M.H. (eds) The Psychology of the Chinese People, pp. 312–366. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong (1986)Google Scholar
  6. Chen C.T., Peng S.T.: Intelligent process control using neural fuzzy techniques. J. Process Control 9(3), 493–503 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng B.S., Huang M.P., Chou L.F.: Paternalistic leadership and its effectiveness: evidence from Chinese organizational teams. J. Psychol. Chin. Soc. (Hong Kong) 3(1), 85–112 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. Conrad C., Brown G.A., Harry A.: Harmon customer satisfaction and corporate culture: a profile deviation analysis of a relationship marketing outcome. Psychol. Mark. 14(7), 663–674 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cuieford J.P.: Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, 4th edn. McGraw Hill, New York (1965)Google Scholar
  10. Dansereau F., Graen G., Haga W.: A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership in formal organizations. Organ. Behav. Hum. Perform. 13(1), 46–78 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dienesch R.M., Liden R.C.: Leader-member exchange model of leadership: a critique and further development. Acad. Manag. Rev. 11, 618–634 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dobbins G.H., Cardy L.R., Carson P.K.: Examining fundamental assumptions: a contrast of person and system approaches to human resource management. Reach Pers. Hum. Resour. Manag. 3(1), 1–38 (1991)Google Scholar
  13. Ekman P.: Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life. Henry Holt and Company, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  14. Foa V.G.: Resource theory: interpersonal behavior as exchange. In: Gergen, K.J., Greenberg, M.S., Willis, R.H. (eds) Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, Plenum, NY (1980)Google Scholar
  15. Goleman, D.: Working with Emotional Intelligence. John Wiley and Sons, Inc (1998)Google Scholar
  16. Graen G.B., Liden R., Hoe W.L.: Role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process. J. Appl. Psychol. 67(4), 868–872 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grandey, A.A.: The effects of emotional labor: employee attitudes, stress and performance. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, Colorado State University, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  18. Griffin R.W.: Consequences of quality circles in and industrial setting: a longitudinal assessment. Acad. Manag. J. 31, 338–358 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hackman R., Oldman G.: Work Redesign. Addison-Wesley, Boston (1980)Google Scholar
  20. Hair J.F., Anderson E.R., Tatham L.R., Black W.C.: Multivariate Data Analysis. Macmillan, NY (1998)Google Scholar
  21. Harris S.G., Sutton R.I.: Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Acad. Manag. J. 29(1), 5–30 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hochschild A.R.: The Managed Hart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. University of California Press, Berkeley (1983)Google Scholar
  23. Hochwarter W.A., Perrewe P.L., Ferris G.R.: Job satisfaction and performance: the moderating effects of value attainment and affective disposition. J. Vocat. Behav. 54, 296–313 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoffman K.D., Ingram N.T.: Service provider job satisfaction and customer-oriented performance. J. Serv. Mark. 6(2), 68–78 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hofstede G.H.: Culture Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Sage, Beverly Hill (1980)Google Scholar
  26. Homas G.C.: Social behavior as exchange. Am. J. Sociol. 63, 597–606 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawler E.E. III: High-Involvement Management. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (1986)Google Scholar
  28. Marks M.L., Mirvis H.P., Hackett J.E., Grady J.F. Jr: Employee participation in a quality circle program: impact on quality of work life productivity and absenteeism. J. Appl. Psychol. 71, 61–69 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mayer J.D., Salovey P.: What is emotional intelligence?. In: Salovey, P., Sluyter, D.J. (eds) Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications, Basic Books, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  30. Mayer J.D., Caruso R.D., Salovey P.: Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence 27, 267–298 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mellor S.: The influence of layoff severity on post-layoff union commitment among survivors: the moderating effect of the perceived legitimacy of a layoff account. Pers. Psychol. 45, 579–600 (1992)Google Scholar
  32. Mitchell M.A., Yate D.: How to use your organizational culture as a competitive tool. Profit World 20(2), 33–34 (2002)Google Scholar
  33. Morris, J.A.: Predictors and consequences of emotional labor. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, University of South Carolina, USA (1995)Google Scholar
  34. Morris J.A., Feldman D.C.: The dimensions, antecedents and consequences of emotional labor. Acad. Manag. Rev. 21(4), 986–1010 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nunnally J.: Psychometric Theory. McGraw Hill, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  36. Ortiz J.P., Lisa A.: Making high performance lost: reflections on involvement culture and power in organizations. Perform. Improv. 44(3), 31–37 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ouchi W.G.: The Z Theory. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1981)Google Scholar
  38. Pascale R.T., Athos A.G.: The art of Janpanses management review. Can. Bank. ICB Rev. 86(3), 61–65 (1982)Google Scholar
  39. Pelled L.H., Xin K.R.: Down and out: an investigation of the relationship between mood and employee withdwaral behavior. J. Manag. 25(6), 875–895 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pellitteri J.: The relationship between emotional intelligence and ego defense mechanism. J. Psychol. 136(2), 182–194 (2002)Google Scholar
  41. Pratt H.J.: Principles of effective performance management. ARMA Rec. Manag. Q. 25(1), 28–31 (1991)Google Scholar
  42. Rafiq M., Ahmed K.P.: The scope of internal marketing: defining the boundary between marketing and human resource management. J. Mark. 9, 219–232 (2000)Google Scholar
  43. Redding, S.G., Casey, W.T.: Managerial beliefs asians. In: Taylor, R.L., O’connell, M.J., Zawacki, A., Warwick, D.D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Academy of Management 36th Annual Meeting, Academy of Management, vol. 11, pp. 351–356. Annual Reviews, Kansas (1976)Google Scholar
  44. Robbins S.P.: Management, 4th edn. Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey (1994)Google Scholar
  45. Robbins S.P.: Management, 7th edn. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey (2002)Google Scholar
  46. Schein E.H.: Organizational culture. Am. Psychol. 45(2), 109–119 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Siegel L.B., Swerdlin I.E.: Using a growth strategy for charitable remainder trust portfolios. J. Tax. 84(3), 150–156 (1996)Google Scholar
  48. Smircich L., Calas M.C.: Organizational culture: a critical assessment. In: Jablin, F., Putnam, L., Roberts, K., Porter, L. (eds) Handbook of Organizational Communication, Sage Publications, London (1987)Google Scholar
  49. Stauss B., Man P.: Culture shocks in inter-cultural service encounters?.  J. Serv. Mark. 13(5), 329–347 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Strauss G.: Workers participation in management an international perspective. Res. Organ. Behav. 4, 173–265 (1982)Google Scholar
  51. Sugeno, M.: Industrial Applications of Fuzzy Control. Elsevier Science Pub. Co (1985)Google Scholar
  52. Tomiuk, M.A.: The impact of service providers’ emotional displays on service evaluation: evidence of emotional contagion. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, Concordia University, Canada (2001)Google Scholar
  53. Trice H.M., Beyer M.J.: A field study of the use and perceived effects of discipline in controlling work performance. Acad. Manag. J. 27(4), 743–764 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tsui A.S., Farh L.J.: Where guanxi matters: relational demography and guanxing the Chinese context. Work Occup. 24, 56–79 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Waldman D.A.: The contributions of total quality management to a theory of work performance. Acad. Manag. Rev. 19, 610–538 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wharton A.S.: The affective consequences of service work. Work Occup. 20(2), 205–232 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. White H.: Some asymptotic results for learning in single hidden layer feed forward network models. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 84, 1003–1013 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilfred J.Z., Dobni D., Harel G.H.: Promoting employee service behavior: the role of perceptions of human resource management practices and service culture. Revue Canadienne des Sciences del’ Administration 15(2), 165–179 (1998)Google Scholar
  59. Witkowski T.H., Wolfinbarger F.M.: Comparative service quality: German and American ratings across service settings. J. Bus. Res. 55, 875–881 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zimbardo P.G.: Psychology and Life, 4th edn. Foresman and Company, Scott (1985)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Technology ManagementNational Kaohsiung Normal UniversityKaohsiung CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations