Advertisement

Qualitative Sociology

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 521–542 | Cite as

The Criminalization of Muslims in the United States, 2016

  • Sarah Beth KaufmanEmail author
Article

Abstract

The criminalization of Muslims—framing an Islamic religious identity as a problem to be solved using state crime control logic—is undeniably in process in the United States. Local, state, and federal statutes target Muslims for surveillance and exclusion, and media sources depict Muslims as synonymous with terrorism, as others have shown. This paper analyzes the public’s role in the criminalization of Islam, which I call “cr-Islamization.” Drawing on in-depth, qualitative interviews in a major Southwest city during the lead-up to the 2016 presidential election, I detail how the majority of 144 politically, racially, and economically diverse interviewees talk about Muslims as a potential “racial threat,” using “fear of crime” language indicative of the mass incarceration era. This suggests that criminalization theory should be central to sociological studies of Muslims in the contemporary United States, and that criminalization rhetoric remains powerful, despite mainstream enthusiasm for criminal justice reform. I argue that criminalization’s power might reside in its ability to mutate in the “post-racial” era. The mechanisms supporting crimmigration, the criminalization of black Americans, and cr-Islamization are related but not identical. Muslims are religiously and racially subjugated, but more economically secure compared to other criminalized groups. This paper’s findings should prompt scholars to re-examine the relationships between racialization, criminalization, religious subjugation, and economic exploitation in the twenty-first century United States.

Keywords

Muslims Racialization Criminalization Crimmigration Trump “Racial threat” Fear of crime 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported through grants from the Mellon Foundation and Trinity University and was conducted in collaboration with Drs. Habiba Noor and William Christ.

References

  1. Aas, Katja F., and Mary Bosworth, eds. 2013. The borders of punishment: Migration, citizenship, and social exclusion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, Courtney, Karen Albright, and Aaron Panofsky. 2004. Contesting the New York community: From liminality to the “new normal” in the wake of September 11. City and Community 3 (3): 189–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali, Arshad. 2016. “Citizens under Suspicion: Responsive Research with Community under Surveillance.” Anthropology and Education 47 (1): 78–95.Google Scholar
  4. Altheide, David. 2006. Terrorism and the Politics of Fear. In Terrorism and the politics of fear. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asad, Talal. 2007. On suicide bombing. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Aseltine, Elyshia. 2014. Muslims, the war on terror, and prisons. In Color behind bars: Racism in the US prison system, ed. Scott Bowman, 28–41. Santa Barbara, CA: Prager.Google Scholar
  7. Bail, Christopher. 2012. The fringe effect: Civil society organizations and the evolution of media discourse about Islam since the September 11th attacks. American Sociological Review 77 (6): 855–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bail, Christopher. 2015. Terrified: How anti-Muslim fringe organizations became mainstream. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakalian, Anny, and Mehdi Bozorgmehr. 2009. Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans respond. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bayoumi, Moustafa. 2006. Racing religion. The Centennial Review 6 (2): 267–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, Howard. 1963. Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Beckett, Katherine, Anna Reosti, and Emily Knaphus. 2016. The end of an era? Understanding the contradictions of criminal justice reform. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 664 (1): 238–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beckett, Katherine, and Theodore Sasson. 2004. The politics of injustice: Crime and punishment in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  14. Bhatia, Aditi, and Christopher Jenks. 2018. Fabricating the American dream in US media portrayals of Syrian refugees: A discourse analytical study. Discourse & Communication 12 (3): 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blalock, Hubert. 1967. Toward a theory of minority-group relations. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  16. Blumer, Herbert. 1958. Race prejudice as a sense of group position. Pacific Sociological Review 1 (1): 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bobo, Lawrence, and Vincent L. Hutchings. 1996. Perceptions of racial group competition: Extending Blumer’s theory of group position to a multiracial social context. American Sociological Review 61 (6): 951–972.Google Scholar
  18. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2014. Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  19. Braunstein, Ruth. 2017. Muslims as outsiders, enemies, and others: The 2016 presidential election and the politics of religious exclusion. American Journal of Cultural Sociology 5 (3): 355–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulut, Elif. 2016. Pride and prejudice: The context of reception for Muslims in the United States. Contemporary Social Science 11 (4): 304–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Byng, Michelle. 2010. Symbolically Muslim: Media, hijab, and the West. Critical Sociology 36 (1): 109–129.Google Scholar
  22. Cainkar, Louise. 2002. No longer invisible: Arab and Muslim exclusion after September 11. Middle East Report Online 32: 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cainkar, Louise. 2009. Homeland insecurity: The Arab American and Muslim American experience after 9/11. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  24. Cainkar, Louise, and Sunaina Maira. 2005. Targeting Arab/Muslim/South Asian Americans: Criminalization and cultural citizenship. Amerasia Journal 31 (3): 1–28.Google Scholar
  25. Cainkar, Louise, and Saher Selod. 2018. Review of race scholarship and the war on terror. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 4 (2): 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Casanova, José. 2007. Immigration and the new religious pluralism: A European Union/United States comparison. In Democracy and the new religious pluralism, ed. Thomas Banchoff, 59–84. London, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Casanova, José. 2011. Cosmopolitanism, the clash of civilizations and multiple modernities. Current Sociology 59 (2): 252–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cesari, Jocelyne. 2013. Why the West fears Islam: An exploration of Muslims in liberal democracies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Chavez, Leo. 2008. The Latino threat: Constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Chiricos, Ted, Ranee McEntire, and Marc Gertz. 2001. Perceived racial and ethnic composition of neighborhood and perceived risk of crime. Social Problems 48: 322–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clear, Todd R., and Natasha A. Frost. 2014. The punishment imperative: The rise and failure of mass incarceration in America. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Coen, Alise. 2017. Securitization, normalization, and representations of Islam in senate discourse. Politics and Religion 10: 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Collins, Patricia Hill. 2004. Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Considine, Craig. 2017. The racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, hate crimes, and “flying while brown.” Religions 8 (9): 1–19.Google Scholar
  35. Davis, Angela. 1997. Race and criminalization. In The house that race built, ed. Wahneema Lubiano, 264–275. New York, NY: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  36. Dawkins, Marcia. 2012. Clearly invisible: Racial passing and the color of cultural identity. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.Google Scholar
  37. DiMaggio, Paul, and Walter Powell. 1983. The Iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review 48 (2): 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eitle, David, Stewart J. D’Alessio, and Lisa Stolzenberg. 2002. Racial threat and social control: A test of the political, economic, and threat of black crime hypotheses. Social Forces 81 (2): 557–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elver, Hilal. 2012. Racializing Islam before and after 9/11: From melting pot to islamophobia. Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 21: 119–174.Google Scholar
  40. Emerson, Michael, and Christian Smith. 2000. Divided by faith: Evangelical religion and the problem of race in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fanon, Frantz. 1952 [1967]. Black skin, white masks. New York, NY: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ferrell, Jeff. 1999. Cultural criminology. Annual Review of Sociology 25: 395–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferrell, Jeff, Keith Hayward, and Jock Young. 2015. Cultural criminology: An invitation. Second ed. New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Garland, David. 2001. The culture of control. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garner, Steve, and Saher Selod. 2015. The racialization of Muslims: Empirical studies of islamophobia. Critical Sociology 41 (1): 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Strauss. 1967. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  47. Glassner, Barry. 1999. The Culture of fear: Why Americans are afraid of the wrong things. New York: Basic books. Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. 2011. Constructing citizenship: Exclusion, subordination, and resistance. American Sociological Review 76 (1): 1–24.Google Scholar
  48. Goffman, Alice. 2014. On the run: Fugitive life in an American city. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haddad, Yvonne, Jane Smith, and Kathleen Moore. 2006. Muslim women in America: The challenge of Islamic identity today. New York City, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall, Stuart, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke, and Brian Roberts. 1978. Policing the crisis: Mugging, the states, and law and order. London, UK: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hamm, Mark. 2013. The spectacular few: Prisoner radicalization and the evolving terrorist threat. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirschfield, Paul, and Katarzyna Celinska. 2011. Beyond fear: Sociological perspectives on the criminalization of school discipline. Sociology Compass 5 (1): 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huntington, Samuel. 1993. The clash of civilizations. Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 22–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jamal, Amaney, and Nadine Naber, eds. 2008. Race and Arab Americans before and after 9/11: From invisible citizens to visible subjects. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Jenness, Valerie. 2004. Explaining criminalization: From demography and status politics to globalization and modernization. Annual Review of Sociology 30: 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, Robert P. 2016. The end of white Christian America. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  57. Joshi, Khyati. 2006. The racialization of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism in the United States. Equity and Excellence in Education 39 (3): 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kalkan, Kerem, Geoffrey Layman, and Eric Uslaner. 2009. “Band of others?” Attitudes toward Muslims in contemporary American society. The Journal of Politics 71 (3): 1–16.Google Scholar
  59. Kamali, Sara. 2017. “Informants, Provocateurs, and Entrapment: Examining the Histories of the FBI’s PATCON and the NYPD’s Muslim Surveillance Program.” Surveillance and Society 15 (1): 68-78.Google Scholar
  60. Kaufman, Sarah, and Hanna Niner. 2019. Muslim victimization in the contemporary US: Clarifying the racialization thesis. Critical Criminology.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-018-09428-2
  61. Khan, Mohsin Hassan, Hamedi Mohd Adnan, Surnderpal Kaur, Rashid Ali Khuhro, Rohail Asghar, and Sahira Jabeen. 2019. Muslims’ representation in Donald Trump’s anti-Muslim-Islam statement: A critical discourse analysis. Religions 10 (2): 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. King, Ryan, and Darren Wheelock. 2007. Group threat and social control: Race, perceptions of minorities and the desire to punish. Social Forces 85 (3): 1255–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lajevardi, Nazita, and Kasraa Ooskoii. 2018. Old-fashioned racism, contemporary islamophobia, and the isolation of Muslim Americans in the age of trump. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and Politics 3 (1): 112–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lee, Murray. 2001. The genesis of `fear of crime.’ Theoretical Criminology 5 (4): 467–485.Google Scholar
  65. Lerman, Amy, and Vesla Weaver. 2014. Arresting citizenship: The democratic consequences of American crime control. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis, Bernard. 1990. The roots of Muslim rage. September issue: The Atlantic Monthly.Google Scholar
  67. Liska, Allen E. 1992. Social threat and social control. Sacramento, CA: California Correctional Peace Officers Association.Google Scholar
  68. Love, Erik. 2017. Islamophobia and racism in America. New York, NY: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lyons, William, and Julie Drew. 2006. Punishing schools: Fear and citizenship in American public education. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meer, Nasar. 2013. Racialization and religion: Race, culture, and difference in the study of antisemitism and islamophobia. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (3): 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meer, Nasar, and Tariq Modood. 2010. The racialization of Muslims. In Thinking through islamophobia: Global perspectives, eds. Salman Sayyid and Abdool Karim Vakil, 69–84. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Menjívar, Cecilia. 2016. Immigrant criminalization in law and the media: Effects on Latino immigrant workers’ identities in Arizona.American Behavioral Science 60 (5–6): 597–616.Google Scholar
  73. Menjívar, Cecilia, and Sang H. Kil. 2002. For their own good: Benevolent rhetoric and exclusionary language in public officials’ discourse on immigrant-related issues. Social Justice 29 (1/2): 160–176.Google Scholar
  74. Mitchell, Joshua, and Brendan Toner. 2016. Exploring the foundations of US state-level anti-sharia initiatives. Politics and Religion 9 (4): 720–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Modood, Tariq, Anna Triandafyllidou, and Ricard Zapata-Barrero. 2006. Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship: A European approach. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Mondon, Aurelien, and Aaron Winter. 2017. Articulations of islamophobia: From the extreme to the mainstream? Ethnic and Racial Studies 40 (13): 2151–2179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moore, Jeffrey C., Linda L. Stinson, and Edward J. Welniak Jr. 2000. Income measurement error in surveys: A review. Journal of Official Statistics 16 (4): 331–361.Google Scholar
  78. Morgan, David. 1997. Focus groups as qualitative research, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morgan, George and Scott Poynting. 2012. Global islamophobia: Muslims and moral panic in the west, ed. Scott Poynting. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Morey, Peter. 2010. Terrorvision: Nation and Muslimness in Fox’s 24. International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 12 (2): 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morse, Janice. 2007. Sampling in grounded theory. In The SAGE handbook of grounded theory, eds. Antony Bryant and Kathy Charmaz, 229–244. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  82. Mueller, John. 2009. Overblown: How politicians and the terrorism industry inflate national security threats, and why we believe them. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  83. Nacos, Brigitte, and Oscar Torres-Reyna. 2003. Framing Muslim-Americans before and after 9/11. In Framing terrorism: The news media, the government, and the public, eds. Pippa Norris, Montague Kern, and Marion Just, 133–158. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. Second ed. New York City, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Ousey, Graham C., and Charis E. Kubrin. 2018. Immigration and crime: Assessing a contentious issue. Annual Review of Criminology 1 (1): 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Panagopoulos, Costas. 2006. The polls-trends: Arab and Muslim Americans and Islam in the aftermath of 9/11. International Journal of Public Opinion Quarterly 70 (4): 608–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Patel, Faiza, Matthew Duss, and Amos Toh. 2013. Foreign law bans: Legal uncertainties and practical problems. The Brennan Center for Justice. https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/publications/ForeignLawBans.pdf
  88. Peek, Lori. 2005. Becoming Muslim: The development of a religious identity. Sociology of Religion 66 (3): 215–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pew Research Center. 2014. How Americans feel about religious groups. Available at http://www.pewforum.org/2014/07/16/how-americans-feel-about-religious-groups/.
  90. Pew Research Center. 2016. Republicans prefer blunt talk about Islamic extremism, Democrats favor caution. Available at http://www.pewforum.org/2016/02/03/republicans-prefer-blunt-talk-about-islamic-extremism-democrats-favor-caution/.
  91. Pew Research Center. 2017. U.S. Muslims concerned about their place in society, but continue to believe in the American dream. Available at https://www.pewforum.org/2017/07/26/findings-from-pew-research-centers-2017-survey-of-us-muslims/.
  92. Rana, Junaid. 2011. Terrifying Muslims: Race and labor in the south Asian diaspora. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ratner, Emily. 2012. Anonymous accusers in the Holy Land: Subverting the right of confrontation in the United States’ largest terrorism-financing trial. Loyola Journal of Public Interest Law 13 (2): 575.Google Scholar
  94. Razack, Sherene. 2008. Casting out: The eviction of Muslims from Western law and politics. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  95. Rios, Victor. 2011. Punished: Policing the lives of black and Latino boys. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Roberts, Julian. 1997. The role of criminal record in the sentencing process. Crime and Justice 22: 303–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Robbins, Ira P. 2004. Guilty without charge: Assessing the due process rights of unindicted co-conspirators. Federal Courts Law Review 1: 1–26.Google Scholar
  98. Romero, Mary. 2008. Crossing the immigration and race border: A critical race theory approach to immigration studies. Contemporary Justice Review 11 (1): 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rosino, Michael, and Matthew Hughey. 2015. Who’s invited to the (political) party: Race and party politics in the USA. Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (3): 325–332.Google Scholar
  100. Russo, Ann. 2006. The feminist majority foundation’s campaign to stop gender apartheid: The intersection of feminism and imperialism in the United States. International Feminist Journal of Politics 8 (4): 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  102. Sanchez, Maria C., and Linda Schlossberg. 2001. Passing: Identity and interpretation in sexuality, race, and religion. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Sasson, Theodore. 1995. Crime talk: How citizens construct a social problem. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter, Inc..Google Scholar
  104. Selod, Saher. 2015. Citizenship denied: The racialization of Muslim American men and women post-9/11. Critical Sociology 41 (1): 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Selod, Saher. 2018. Forever suspect: Racialized surveillance of Muslims in the war on terror. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Selod, Saher, and David Embrick. 2013. Racialization and Muslims: Situating the Muslim experience in race scholarship. Sociology Compass 7 (8): 644–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sewell, William H., Jr. 1996. Historical events as transformations of structures: Inventing revolution at the bastille. Theory and Society 25 (6): 841–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shiek, I. 2011. Detained without cause: Muslims’ stories of detention and deportation in America after 9/11. New York, NY: Palgrave McMillian.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shams, Tahseen. 2018. Visibility as resistance by Muslim Americans in a surveillance and security atmosphere. Sociological Forum 33 (1): 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sherkat, Darren, and Derek Lehman. 2018. Bad Samaritans: Religion and anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim sentiment in the United States. Social Science Quarterly 99 (5): 1791–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sides, John, and Kimberly Gross. 2013. Stereotypes of Muslims and support for the war on terror. The Journal of Politics 75 (3): 583–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Silva, Derek. 2017. The othering of Muslims: Discourses of radicalization in the New York Times, 1969–2014. Sociological Forum 32 (1): 138–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Simon, Jonathan. 2007. Governing through crime: How the war on crime transformed American democracy and created a culture of fear. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Singh, Amardeep. 2002. ‘We are not the enemy’: Hate crimes against Arabs, Muslims, and those perceived to be Arab or Muslim after September 11. Human Rights Watch report 14 (6). https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/usa1102.pdf.
  115. Small, Mario. 2009. ‘How many cases do I need?’: On science and the logic of case selection in field-based research. Ethnography 10 (1): 5–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stewart, Eric, Ramiro Martinez Jr, Eric Baumer, and Marc Gertz. 2015. The social context of Latino threat and punitive Latino sentiment. Social Problems 62 (1): 68–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stumpf, Juliet. 2006. The crimmigration crisis: Immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. American University Law Review 56 (2): 367–419.Google Scholar
  118. Tayeh, Raeed. 2014. Implicated but not charged: Improving due process for unindicted co-conspirators. Akron Law Review 47 (2): 551–586.Google Scholar
  119. Turner, Bryan, and Kamaludeen Nasir. 2013. The sociology of Islam: Collected essays of Bryan S. Turner. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  120. Wang, Xia. 2012. Undocumented immigrants as perceived criminal threat: A test of the minority threat perspective. Criminology 50 (3): 743–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weiss, Robert. 1995. Learning from strangers: The art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  122. Welch, Kelly, Allison Payne, Ted Chiricos, and Marc Gertz. 2011. The typification of Hispanics as criminals and support for punitive crime controls. Social Science Research 40: 822–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilkinson, Sue. 1999. Focus groups: A feminist method. Psychology of Women Quarterly 23: 221–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Williams, Raymond. 1977. Marxism and literature. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Williams, Rhys. 2013. Civil religion and the cultural politics of national identity in Obama’s America. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 52 (2): 239–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yukich, Grace. 2018. Muslim American activism in the age of Trump. Sociology of Religion 79 (2): 220–247.Google Scholar
  127. Zainiddinov, Hakim. 2016. Racial and ethnic differences in perceptions of discrimination among Muslim Americans. Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (15): 2701–2721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zopf, Bradley. 2017. A different kind of brown: Arabs and middle easterners as anti-American Muslims. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 4 (2): 178–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyTrinity UniversitySan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations