Advertisement

Qualitative Sociology

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 593–616 | Cite as

More than Subversion: Four Strategies for the Dominated

  • Barış Büyükokutan
  • Hale Şaşmaz
Article

Abstract

This article asks what strategies are available to dominated actors in fields of cultural production. Using archival and biographical materials on Ottoman/Turkish women intellectuals, we show that they effectively used, depending on their social and cultural capital and their past practices, at least four strategies. Apart from the well-theorized strategy of subversion, they could also deploy acquiescence, collaboration, and defiance. These four strategies, we argue, constitute a two-dimensional space defined by loyalty vs. resistance on one hand and the overtness vs. covertness of loyalty or resistance on the other. While much of this space is best understood in terms of reciprocal social exchange, the assumptions of exchange break down in the case of overt resistance, showing that strategy goes beyond negotiation and that the understanding of power as always-already implicated with resistance has limits.

Keywords

Women intellectuals Ottoman empire Turkey Strategy Bourdieu Subversion 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The two co-authors have contributed equally to this manuscript. The research was funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Institute of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), grant number 115 K098. An earlier version was presented at the Third Pierre Bourdieu Symposium in Antalya, Turkey. We would like to thank Didem Havlioğlu, Sevcan Karcı, Tuna Kuyucu, three anonymous reviewers, and the Editor-in-Chief of Qualitative Sociology for their invaluable comments.

References

  1. Adak, Hülya. 2003. National myths and self-na(rra)tions: Mustafa Kemal's Nutuk and halide Edib's memoirs and the Turkish ordeal. The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 (2): 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, Julia. 2005. The familial state: Ruling families and merchant capitalism in early modern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Adıvar, Halide Edib. 1928. The Turkish ordeal: Being the further memoirs of halide Edib. New York London: The Century Co..Google Scholar
  4. Adıvar, Halide Edib. 2004. Memoirs of Halide Edib. Piscataway, N.J: Gorgias press.Google Scholar
  5. Amrullah, Eva F. 2011. Seeking sanctuary in ‘the age of disorder’: Women in contemporary Tablighi Jamā‘at. Contemporary Islam 5 (2): 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argunşah, Hülya. 2011. Bir cumhuriyet kadını: Şükufe Nihal. Istanbul: Timaş.Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong, Elizabeth A., and Mary Bernstein. 2008. Culture, power, and institutions: A multi-institutional politics approach to social movements. Sociological Theory 26 (1): 74–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arslanalp, Mert, and Wendy Pearlman. 2017. Mobilization in military-controlled transitions: Lessons from Turkey, Brazil, and Egypt. Comparative Sociology 16 (3): 311–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekiroğlu, Nazan. 1998. Şair Nigar Hanım. Istanbul: İletişim.Google Scholar
  10. Benson, Koni. 2015. A ‘political war of words and bullets’: Defining and defying sides of struggle for housing in crossroads, South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies 41 (2): 367–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1975. The specificity of the scientific field and the social conditions of the progress of reason. Social Science Information 14 (6): 19–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1988. Homo academicus. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, Pierre.1993a. Some properties of fields. In Sociology in question (trans: Nice R.), 72–77. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993b. The field of cultural production: Essays on art and literature. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996a. The rules of art: Genesis and structure of the literary field. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996b. The state nobility: Elite schools in the field of power. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Burke, Kelsy C. 2012. Women’s agency in gender-traditional religions: A review of four approaches. Sociology Compass 6 (2): 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Büyükokutan, Barış. 2010. Autonomy from what? Populism, universities, and the U.S. poetry field, 1910-1975. Political Power and Social Theory 21: 3–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Büyükokutan, Barış. 2011. Toward a theory of cultural appropriation: Buddhism, the Vietnam war, and the field of U.S. poetry. American Sociological Review 76 (4): 620–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Büyükokutan, Barış. 2018. Elitist by default? Interaction dynamics and the inclusiveness of secularization in Turkish literary milieus. American Journal of Sociology 123 (5): 1249–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Çakır, Serpil. 1994. Osmanlı kadın hareketi. Istanbul: Metis.Google Scholar
  23. Çalışlar, İpek. 2010. Halide Edib: Biyografisine sığmayan kadın. Istanbul: Everest.Google Scholar
  24. Casanova, Pascale. 2004. The world republic of letters. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Chaudhuri, Soma, Merry Morash, and Julie Yingling. 2014. Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: A study of south Asian women. Violence Against Women 20 (2): 141–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chen, Anthony. 1999. Lives at the center of the periphery, lives at the periphery of the center: Chinese American masculinities and bargaining with hegemony. Gender & Society 13: 584–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, Jean. 1985. Strategy or identity: New theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movements. Social Research 52 (4): 663–716.Google Scholar
  28. Demirdirek, Aynur. 1993. Osmanlı kadınlarının hayat hakkı arayışının bir hikayesi. Ankara: İmge.Google Scholar
  29. Emerson, Richard M. 1962. Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review 27 (1): 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Emine Semiye. 1896. Binti Ahmed Remziye Hanımefendi Hazretlerine cevap. Hanımlara Mahsus Gazete 20: 4.Google Scholar
  31. Emine Semiye. 1897. Hanımlara dürıs-ı hikmet. Hanımlara Mahsus Gazete 11: 6–7.Google Scholar
  32. Emine Semiye. 1908. Muhterem biraderimiz Cavid Beyefendiye. Mehasin 21: 2–5.Google Scholar
  33. Emine Semiye. 1909. Terakkiyat-ı nisvaniyyeyi kimden bekleyelim. Mehasin 10: 733–736.Google Scholar
  34. Emine Semiye. 1919. Hayatta kadının hisse-i iştiraki. İleri 642, October 23, 5–6.Google Scholar
  35. Esen, Nüket. 2000. Bir Osmanlı kadın yazarın doğuşu. Journal of Turkish Studies -Türklük Bilgisi Araştırmaları 24 (1): 115–120.Google Scholar
  36. Fedai, Özlem, ed. 2011. Romanı konuştular. Istanbul: Sütun.Google Scholar
  37. Gamson, William.A., and Gadi Wolfsfeld. 1993. Movements and media as interacting systems. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528 (1): 114–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gerami, Shahin, and Melodye Lehnerer. 2001. Women’s agency and household diplomacy: Negotiating fundamentalism. Gender & Society 15 (4): 556–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerson, Judith.M., and Kathy Peiss. 1985. Boundaries, negotiation, consciousness: Reconceptualizing gender relations. Social Problems 32 (4): 317–−331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  41. Go, Julian. 2011. Patterns of empire: The British and American empires, 1688 to the present. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Homans, George C. 1974. Social behavior; its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  43. Hutson, Alaine S. 2001. Women, men, and patriarchal bargaining in an Islamic Sufi order: The Tijaniyya in Kano, Nigeria, 1937 to the present. Gender and Society 15 (5): 734–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenkins, Hester Donaldson. 2015/1911. Behind Turkish lattices: The story of a Turkish woman’s life. London: Forgotten Books.Google Scholar
  45. Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1988. Bargaining with patriarchy. Gender & Society 2 (3): 274–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaymaz, Kadriye. 2009. Gölgedeki kalem Emine Semiye: Bir Osmanlı kadın yazarının düşünce dünyası. Istanbul: Küre.Google Scholar
  47. Kerimi, Fatih. 2001. İstanbul mektupları. Istanbul: Çağrı.Google Scholar
  48. Kibria, Nazli. 1990. Power, patriarchy, and gender conflict in the Vietnamese immigrant community. Gender & Society 4 (1): 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim, Minjeong. 2013. Weaving women’s agency into representations of marriage migrants: Narrative strategies with reflective practice. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 19 (3): 7–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kimeldorf, Howard. 1992. Reds or rackets. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kızıltan, Mübeccel. 1993. Nisvan-ı İslam: Fatma Aliye Hanım. Istanbul: Mutlu.Google Scholar
  52. Lempert, Lora Bex. 1996. Women’s strategies for survival: Developing agency in abusive relationships. Journal of Family Violence 11 (3): 269–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lev, Assaf, and Esther Hertzog. 2017. Typology of gender resistance and defiance in Israeli gyms. Sport in Society 20 (11): 1699–1714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lorber, Judith. 2002. Heroes, warriors, and burqas: A feminist sociologist’s reflections on September 11. Sociological Forum 17: 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marmenout, Katty, and Pamela Lirio. 2014. Local female talent retention in the Gulf: Emirati women bending with the wind. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 25 (2): 144–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCammon, Holly J., Karen E. Campbell, Ellen.M. Granberg, and Christine Mowery. 2001. How movements win: Gendered opportunity structures and US women’s suffrage movements, 1866 to 1919. American Sociological Review 66 (1): 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCarthy, John.D., and Mayer N. Zald. 1977. Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology 82 (6): 1212–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mütalaa 1, “Hanımlara mahsus kısım.” August 3, 1896.Google Scholar
  59. Nezihe Muhiddin, "Hitabe.” In Darülfünun konferans salonunda kadınlarımızın içtimaları [meetings of our women at the university conference hall], 80–83. Istanbul: Tanin. 1912.Google Scholar
  60. Nezihe Muhlis [Nezihe Muhiddin], "Bir mütalaa [A Comment]". Kadınlar Dünyası 14, April 17 1913, 2.Google Scholar
  61. Muhiddin, Nezihe. 1931. Türk kadını. Istanbul: Numune.Google Scholar
  62. O’Shaughnessy, Kate. 2009. Gender, state and social power in contemporary Indonesia: Divorce and marriage law. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Paxton, Pamela, and Melanie M. Hughes. 2015. Women, politics, and power: A global perspective. CQ Press.Google Scholar
  64. Piven, Frances Fox, and Richard A. Cloward. 1991. Collective protest: A critique of resource mobilization theory. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 4 (4): 435–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Read, Jen’nan Ghazal, and John P. Bartkowski. 2000. To veil or not to veil? A case study of identity negotiation among Muslim women in Austin, Texas. Gender and Society 14 (3): 395–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reynolds, Frances, and Sarah Prior. 2003. “Sticking jewels in your life”: Exploring women’s strategies for negotiating an acceptable quality of life with multiple sclerosis. Qualitative Health Research 13 (9): 1225–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Runciman, Carin. 2016. Mobilising and organising in precarious times: Analysing contemporary collective action in South Africa. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 36 (9–10): 613–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sapiro, Gisele. 2003. The literary field between the state and the market. Poetics 31 (5–6): 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sarıhan, Zeki. 1993. Kurtuluş Savaşı günlüğü. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.Google Scholar
  70. Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Sewell, William.H. 1992. A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American Journal of Sociology 98 (1): 1–29.Google Scholar
  72. Sezgin, Yüksel, and Mirjam Künkler. 2014. Regulation of ‘religion’ and the ‘religious’: The politics of judicialization and bureaucratization in India and Indonesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 56 (2): 448–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Somers, Margaret.R. 1998. We’re no angels: Realism, rational choice, and relationality in social science. American Journal of Sociology 104 (3): 722–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1999. A critique of postcolonial reason: Toward a history of the vanishing present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Toprak, Zafer. 1995. Milli iktisat-milli burjuvazi. In İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları.Google Scholar
  76. Van Dyke, Nella, and Holly J. McCammon. 2010. Strategic alliances: Coalition building and social movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  77. Wright, Clare. 2008. New brooms they say sweep clean: Women’s political activism on the Ballarat goldfields, 1854. Australian Historical Studies 39 (3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zihnioğlu, Yaprak. 2003. Kadınsız inkılap: Nezihe Muhiddin, Kadınlar Halk Fırkası, Kadın Birliği. Istanbul: Metis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyKoç UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Southeast European HistoryHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations