Quality Indicators and Heat Damage of Dried and Cooked Gluten Free Spaghetti
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The quality and safety indicators of commercial dried gluten free (GF) pasta were analyzed to investigate, for the first time, the real nutritional intake through the chemical composition and the heat damage during processing by quantification of furosine. Eight samples of GF spaghetti were compared with wheat spaghetti. Dried and cooked GF pasta had lower protein and ash content than wheat spaghetti. GF samples composed solely by corn flour had higher optimal cooking time. Samples with emulsifier showed lower losses during cooking. Considering their composition, no trend could be established to explain textural behavior. Samples constituted merely by corn showed the highest resilience and elasticity. Spaghetti constituted only from corn and rice showed the highest firmness. The furosine content in dried samples ranged between 19 and 134 mg FUR/100 g proteins and in cooked samples ranged between 48 to 360 mg FUR/100 g proteins. Furosine content of GF pasta was in general lower than in wheat pasta, and those differences were even enlarged when comparing them after cooking. The results of PCA indicated it was possible to discriminate GF pasta regarding their technological and nutritional behavior.
KeywordsGluten free pasta Cooking quality Heat damage Furosine
Authors acknowledge the financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (AGL2014-52928-C2-1, RTI2018-095919-B-C21), the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) and Generalitat Valenciana (Prometeo 2017/189). N. Gasparre and E. Betoret thank for their predoctoral (P/2017-104) and postdoctoral (IJCI-2016-29679) grants.
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Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
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