Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract and Insulin Regulate Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Gene Expression in Mouse Adipocytes and Macrophages
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Cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) improves people with insulin resistance. The objective was to investigate CPE and insulin on diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) gene expression important for lipid biosynthesis and compared it to anti-inflammatory tristetraprolin/zinc finger protein 36 (TTP/ZFP36) gene expression known to be regulated by both agents. Mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with insulin and CPE followed by qPCR evaluation of DGAT and TTP mRNA levels. Insulin decreased DGAT1 and DGAT2 mRNA levels in adipocytes but had no effect on DGAT1 and increased DGAT2 mRNA levels 3-fold in macrophages. Insulin increased TTP mRNA levels 3-fold in adipocytes but had no effect in macrophages. CPE effect on DGAT1 gene expression was minimal but increased DGAT2 mRNA levels 2–4 fold in adipocytes and macrophages. CPE increased TTP mRNA levels 2–7 fold in adipocytes and macrophages. We conclude that CPE and insulin exhibited overlapping and independent effects on DGAT and TTP gene expression and suggest that CPE and insulin have profound effects on fat biosynthesis and inflammatory responses.
KeywordsAdipocyte Cinnamon polyphenol extract Diacylglycerol acyltransferases Gene expression Inflammation Macrophage Tristetraprolin
cinnamon polyphenol extract
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
quantitative real-time PCR
ribosomal protein L32
tumor necrosis factor alpha
tristetraprolin/zinc finger protein 36
This work was supported by the USDA-ARS Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products National Program 306 through Research Project 6054-41000-103-00-D. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
This work was supported by the USDA-ARS Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products National Program 306 through Research Project 6054–41000–103-00-D. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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