Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 278–286 | Cite as

Blueberry Residue Encapsulation by Ionotropic Gelation

  • Luciana Linhares de Azevedo BittencourtEmail author
  • Kelly Alencar Silva
  • Valéria Pereira de Sousa
  • Gizele Cardoso Fontes-Sant’Ana
  • Maria Helena Rocha-Leão
Original Paper


In the processing of fruits such as blueberry (Vaccinium sp), that has high levels of phenolic acid, the food industry produces tons of organic waste that causes harm to the environment. Encapsulation is a technique used to take advantage of these wastes. Several methods are used to encapsulate substances, among them ionotropic gelation proves to be a simple, precise, efficient and economical method for obtaining particles with encapsulated bioactives. In this manner, the aim of this study was to test sodium alginate as wall material to encapsulate blueberry residue by ionotropic gelation. The microbeads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and in vitro dissolution. The results showed that the microbeads had surface invagination; retention of 67.01% of the phenolic compounds after encapsulation and 68.2%, phenolic release 120 min after in vitro dissolution. The results suggest that the tested matrix was suitable for encapsulation. The produced microbeads are promising for applications in food products, once the phenolic compounds present in the blueberry residues were maintained after encapsulation.


Microencapsulation Plant residues Blueberry Food fortification 



2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbezothiazoline-6- 6-sulphonic acid)


Analyses of variance


Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel


Central composite rotatable design


Food and drug administration


Ferric reducing antioxidant power


Gallic acid equivalent


Reactive oxygen species


Scanning electron microscopy


Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity


United states pharmacopeia


X - ray diffraction



The authors gratefully acknowledge the institutions: Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for the financial support of the research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

We declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciana Linhares de Azevedo Bittencourt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kelly Alencar Silva
    • 1
  • Valéria Pereira de Sousa
    • 2
  • Gizele Cardoso Fontes-Sant’Ana
    • 3
  • Maria Helena Rocha-Leão
    • 1
  1. 1.Escola de Química, Centro de TecnologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da SaúdeUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Química, Departamento de Tecnologia de Processos BioquímicosUniversidade do Estado do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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