Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 216–221 | Cite as

Implications of the Red Beet Ripening on the Colour and Betalain Composition Relationships

  • Sandra Montes-Lora
  • Francisco J. Rodríguez-Pulido
  • María Jesús Cejudo-BastanteEmail author
  • Francisco J. Heredia
Original Paper


The evolution during ripening of Beta vulgaris (var. Pablo) on colour and betalain composition, not previously conducted in conjunction in red beets, has been examined. According to the results, it could be asserted that the ripening stage significantly (p < 0.05) influenced on all the studied parameters. On the basis of the betalain content, the optimum ripening stage corresponded to a medium weigh-to-calibre ratio, in the light of the significantly (p < 0.05) higher content of betalains, especially betanin and vulgaxanthin I. Moreover, colour attributes also differed during ripening, having the medium-ripened beetroots a significantly (p < 0.05) more reddish hue (hab) and lower lightness (L*), probably due to the higher content of betaxanthins in this stage. The colour differences among red beets in the stage II and the rest of stages were visually appreciable (ΔE*ab > 3) and mainly qualitative. A new range of opportunities for diversification of colorant market, from a nutritional and colorimetric point of view, could be possible by employing red beets with different stages of ripening.


Beta vulgaris L. Ripening Betalains Colour Differential tristimulus colorimetry 



Weigh-to-calibre ratio


High performance liquid chromatography


Refractive index detector


Diode-array detector


Linear discriminant analysis



We are indebted to Consejería de Economía, Innovación y Ciencia, Junta de Andalucía, Spain (Project P11-AGR-7843) for financial support, and to Hijos de Teodoro y Muñoz, S.L. (Sanchonuño, Segovia, Spain) and the Biology Service of Centro de Investigación Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, for technical assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

Authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2018_678_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Online Resource 1 (DOCX 25 kb)
11130_2018_678_MOESM2_ESM.docx (153 kb)
Online Resource 2 (DOCX 152 kb)
11130_2018_678_MOESM3_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Online Resource 3 (DOCX 14 kb)
11130_2018_678_MOESM4_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Online Resource 4 (DOCX 16 kb)
11130_2018_678_MOESM5_ESM.docx (38 kb)
Online Resource 5 (DOCX 38 kb)


  1. 1.
    Stintzing FC, Carle R (2004) Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Technol 15:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Azeredo HMC (2009) Betalains: properties, sources, applications, and stability - a review. Int J Food Sci Technol 44:2365–2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moreno DA, García-Viguera C, Gil JI, Gil-Izquierdo A (2008) Betalains in the era of global agri-food science, technology and nutritional health. Phytochem Rev 7:261–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jaiswal P, Jha SN, Kaur PP, Bhardwaj R, Singh AK, Wadhawan V (2014) Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening. J Food Sci Technol 51:1179–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wills MG, Graham JD (1998) Postharvest: an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. CAB International Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cejudo-Bastante MJ, Chaalal M, Louaileche H, Parrado J, Heredia FJ (2014) Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica. J Agric Food Chem 62:8491–8499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heredia FJ, Álvarez C, González-Miret ML, Ramírez A (2004) CromaLab, análisis de color. Registro General de la Propiedad Intelectual, SevillaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    StatSoft Inc. (2007) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schäfer J, Brett A, Trierweiler B, Bunzel M (2016) Characterization of cell wall composition of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and maturation related changes. J Agric Food Chem 64:8625–8632CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toivonen PMA, Brummell DA (2008) Biochemical bases of appearance and texture changes in fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 48:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borghesi E, Ferrante A, Gordillo B, Rodríguez-Pulido FJ, Cocetta G, Trivellini A, Mensuali-Sodi A, Malorgio F, Heredia FJ (2016) Comparative physiology during ripening in tomato rich-anthocyanins fruits. Plant Growth Regul 80:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fissore EN, Ponce NMA, De Escalada Pla M, Stortz CA, Rojas AM, Gerschenson LN (2010) Characterization of acid-extracted pectin-enriched products obtained from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) and butternut (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex Poiret). J Agric Food Chem 58:3793–3800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fissore EN, Ponce NMA, Matkovic L, Stortz CA, Rojas AM, Gerschenson LN (2011) Isolation of pectin-enriched products from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) wastes: composition and functional properties. Food Sci Technol Int 17:517–527Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bavec M, Turinek M, Grobelnik-Mlakar S, Slatnar A, Bavec F (2010) Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris rote kugel). J Agric Food Chem 58:11825–11831Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhuang JP, Su J, Li XP, Chen W (2007) Changes in α-L-arabinofuranosidase activity in peel and pulp of banana (Musa sp.) fruits during ripening and softening. J Plant Physiol Mol Biol 33:131–136Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kujala T, Loponen J, Pihlaja K (2001) Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation. Z Naturforsch C 56:343–348Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spórna-Kucab A, Hołda E, Wybraniec S (2016) High-speed counter-current chromatography in separation of betacyanins from flowers of red Gomphrena globosa L. cultivars. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 1033:421–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Strack D, Vogt T, Schliemann W (2003) Recent advances in betalain research. Phytochemistry 62:247–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sawicki T, Bączek N, Wiczkowski W (2016) Betalain profile, content and antioxidant capacity of red beetroot dependent on the genotype and root part. J Funct Foods 27:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fernández-Vazquez R, Stinco CM, Hernanz D, Heredia FJ, Vicario IM (2013) Colour training and colour differences thresholds in orange juice. Food Qual Prefer 30:320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Colour & Quality Lab., Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de SevillaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations