Maltodextrin and Gum Arabic-Based Microencapsulation Methods for Anthocyanin Preservation in Juçara Palm (Euterpe edulis Martius) Fruit Pulp
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The juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis Martius), native to the Atlantic Forest, are rich in anthocyanins. To preserve the anthocyanins in juçara fruit pulp, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of microencapsulation by spray drying and freeze drying with maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 16.5 to 19.5) and gum arabic in different proportions. The obtained microparticles were characterized by quantifying the total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, by performing differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and infrared spectroscopy and by using scanning electron microscopy to analyze the morphology of the particles. The total amount of polyphenols in the fruit pulp was 750 ± 16.7 mg GAE/100 g of the freeze-dried sample. The total anthocyanins in the fruit pulp was 181.25 ± 5.36 (mg/100 g). The microparticles were formed by employing maltodextrin and gum arabic in a 1:1 proportion as the polymeric matrix; the mixtures of pulp and polymeric matrix were prepared in proportions of 2:3 and 2:1, preserving up to 83.69% of the anthocyanin content. Lyophilization of the 2:1 mixture resulted in an anthocyanin content of 116.89 ± 4.43 (mg/100 g), whereas lyophilization of the 2:3 mixture resulted in 151.68 ± 1.39 (mg/100 g) anthocyanin content, which did not differ from the value obtained by spray drying the 2:3 mixture (150.76 ± 5.79 (mg/100 g)). Thermal analyses showed that the microparticles obtained by freeze drying at a ratio of 2:3 presented greater resistance to degradation with increasing temperature. The incorporation of the pulp in the polymeric matrix was demonstrated by IR analyses. Microparticles obtained by freeze drying showed the formation of various-sized flakes, whereas those obtained by spray drying were spherical in shape. Microencapsulation is a possible alternative for improving the stability of the anthocyanins in this fruit.
KeywordsEuterpe edulis Anthocyanin preservation Microencapsulation Spray dryer Lyophilization
differential scanning calorimetry
multiple reactions monitoring
scanning electron microscopy
We thank de Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Espírito Santo (FAPES) for a fellowship (RAM and PMMC), and we appreciate the financial support from (TO # 665/2016, N° 80633161) and SEAG. Thanks also to the Laboratório de Saneamento (UFES) and to Tommasi Analítica LTDA for the collaboration on the chromatographic analyses and to CNPq (445987/2014-6, 401409/2014-7, 310680/2016-6-PQ) and Universidade Vila Velha for the financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Studies
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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