Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 225–230 | Cite as

Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats

  • Bárbara Pereira da SilvaEmail author
  • Desirrê Morais Dias
  • Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira
  • Renata Celi Lopes Toledo
  • Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta
  • Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
  • Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
  • Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana
Original Paper


Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality.


Protein digestibility Heat treatment Chia flour Chia seed Lipid Glucose 



alanine aminotransferase


analysis of variance


aspartate aminotransferase


food efficiency ratio


high-density lipoprotein cholesterol


low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


net protein ratio


protein efficiency ratio


total cholesterol


true digestibility




very-low density lipoprotein



The authors thank FAPEMIG, CNPq and CAPES for the financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in this study involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Federal University of Viçosa.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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(GIF 432 kb)

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High resolution image (TIF 5560 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bárbara Pereira da Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Desirrê Morais Dias
    • 1
  • Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira
    • 1
  • Renata Celi Lopes Toledo
    • 1
  • Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta
    • 2
  • Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
    • 1
  • Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
    • 1
  • Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and HealthUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil

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