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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 454–462 | Cite as

Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols

  • Giovanna GiovinazzoEmail author
  • Francesco Grieco
Review Article

Abstract

Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine “functional properties” that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

Keywords

Grape Wine Bioactive molecules Functional food 

Abbreviations

PAL

Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase

C4H

Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase

4CL

4-Hydroxy-Cinnamoyl CoA Ligase

CHS

Chalcone Syntase

CHI

Chalcone Isomerase

STS

Stilbene Synthase

IFH

Isoflavon Hydroxylase

IFR

Isoflavon Reductase

F3H

Flavanone 3-Hydroxylase

F3’5’H

Flavonoid-3′ 5′-Hydroxylase

DFR

Dihydroflavonol Reductase

ANS

Anthocyanidins Synthase

ANR

Anthocyanidins Reductase

3-GT

3-Glucosyltransferase

OMT

OxyMethyl-Transferase

ROS

Reactive Oxygen Species

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research - Project S.I.Mi.S.A. - PON02_00186_3417512/1 and Project Pro.Ali.Fun - PON02_00186_2937475.

Compliancse with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All the authors do not have any competing financial or other interests in relation to the presented work.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari-CNR, Unit of LecceLecceItaly

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