Contribution of Macromolecular Antioxidants to Dietary Antioxidant Capacity: A Study in the Spanish Mediterranean Diet
- 751 Downloads
Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61 % to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.
KeywordsDietary antioxidants Dietary antioxidant capacity Food antioxidant capacity Macromolecular antioxidants Non-extractable polyphenols Spanish Mediterranean diet
We thank M.L. García-González for technical assistance.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2011-27,741). M.E. D-R. and J. P-J. acknowledge the CSIC and the MINNECO for JAE-Doc and Juan de la Cierva postdoctoral contracts, respectively.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
Human and Animal Studies
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- 2.Oyagbemi AA, Azeez OI, Saba AB (2009) Interactions between reactive oxygen species and cancer: the roles of natural dietary antioxidants and their molecular mechanisms of action. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 10:535–544Google Scholar
- 17.Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment La alimentación mes a mes. Diciembre (2013) Publishing Office, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment: MadridGoogle Scholar
- 20.Arranz S, Pérez-Jiménez J, Saura-Calixto F (2008) Antioxidant capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.): contribution of oil and defatted matter. Eur Food Res Technol 227:425–431Google Scholar
- 22.Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, et al. (2003) Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 133:2812–2819Google Scholar
- 24.Kolomvotsou AI, Rallidis LS, Mountzouris KC, Lekakis J, Koutelidakis A, Efstathiou S, et al. (2013) Adherence to mediterranean diet and close dietetic supervision increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma antioxidant capacity in subjects with abdominal obesity. Eur J Nutr 52:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment La alimentación en España (2006) Publishing Office, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment : MadridGoogle Scholar
- 29.Saura-Calixto F, Goñi I (2006) Antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet. Food Chem 94:442–447Google Scholar
- 31.Saura-Calixto F, Goni I (2009) Definition of the Mediterranean diet based on bioactive compounds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49:145–152Google Scholar
- 32.National Statistics Institute (INE) (1965) Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares (marzo 1964-marzo 1965). Resultados provisionales, nacionales y provinciales. Publishing Office, Spanish National Institute of Statistics, MadridGoogle Scholar
- 34.Arranz S, Silván JM, Saura-Calixto F (2010) Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: a study on the Spanish diet. Molec Nutr Food Res 54:1646–1658Google Scholar