Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 441–453 | Cite as

Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits

  • Maryem Ben Salem
  • Hanen AffesEmail author
  • Kamilia Ksouda
  • Raouia Dhouibi
  • Zouheir Sahnoun
  • Serria Hammami
  • Khaled Mounir Zeghal
Review Article

Abstract

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver. In animal studies, liquid extracts of the roots and leaves of artichoke have demonstrated an ability to protect the liver, with possibly even to help liver cells regenerate. Although research is not yet conclusive, scientists were optimistic that its long-standing use in humans for digestive and bowel problems was indeed justified. It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients. This article intended to review the wide ranging pharmacological effects of artichoke leaf extract.

Keywords

Artichoke leaves extract Cardiovascular disorders Antioxidant Hepato-protective 

Abbreviations

ALE

Artichaut leaf extract

C.scolymus

Cynara scolymus

LDL-C

Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol

DM

Diabetes mellitus

NASH

Non alcoholic steatohepatitis

Notes

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they  have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Foti S, Mauromicale G, Raccuia SA, Fallico B, Fanella F, Maccarone E (1999) Possible alternative utilization of Cynara spp. I. Biomass, grain yield and chemical composition of grain. Ind Crop Prod 102:19–228Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Portis E, Acquadro C, Comino G, Mauromicale ES, Lanteri S (2005) Genetic structure of island populations of wild cardoon [Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori] detected by AFLPs and SSRs. Plant Sci 169:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ierna A, Mauromicale G (2010) Cynara cardunculus L. genotypes as a crop for energy purposes in a Mediterranean environment. Biomass Bioenergy 34:754–760Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sonnante G, Pignone D, Hammer K (2007) The domestication of artichoke and cardoon: from Roman times to the genomic age. Ann Bot 100:1095–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lattanzio V, Paul AK, Lansalta V, Cardinali A (2009) Globe artichoke: a functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. J Funct Foods 1:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ceccarelli N, Curadi MP, Picciarelli L, Martelloni C, Sbrana MG (2007) Globe artichoke as functional food. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 31:97–201Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pandino G, Lombardo S, Mauromicale G, Williamson G (2011) Profile of polyphenols and phenolic acids in bracts and receptacles of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) germplasm. J Food Compos Anal 24:148–153Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gebhardt, Fausel M (1997) Antioxydant and hepatoprotective effects of artichoke extracts and constituents in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro 144:279–286Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kraft K (1997) Artichoke leaf extract–recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver, and gastrointestinal tracts. Phytomedicine 43:69–78Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonomi BM (2001) La Rivista di Scienza dell’Alimentazione 30:361–370Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Petrowicz O, Gebhardt R, Donne RM, Schwandt M, Kraft K (1997) Effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) on lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis 129:147–150Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang JJ, Appl K (2007) Radical scavenging activity and content of cynarin. Boil Chem 50:244–284Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robards K (2003) Strategies for determination of bioactive phenols in plants, fruit and vegetable. J Chromatgr 1000:657–691Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ceccarelli N, Curadi M, Picciarelli P, Martelloni L, Sbrana C, Giovannetti M (2010) Globe artichoke as functional food. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 3:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pandino G, Lombardo S, Mauromicale G, Williamson G (2011) Phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaf and floral stem of cultivated and wild Cynara cardunculus L. genotypes. Food Chem 126:417–422Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang M, Simon JE, Aviles IF, Zheng HeK QY, Tadmor Y (2003) Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J Agric Food Chem 51:601–608Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Llorach R, Espin JC, Toma-Barberan FA, Ferrere F (2002) Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 50:3458–3464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhu X, Zhang H, Lo R (2004) Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara Scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities. J Agric Food Chem 52:7272–7278Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mossi AJ, Echeverrigaray S (1999) Identification and characterization of antimicrobial components in leaf extracts of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Acta Horticult 501:111–114Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merck (2006) The Merck index 14th ed. an encyclopaedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Merck Manuals, NJGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dorn M (1995/1996) Improvement in raised lipid levels with artichoke juice (Cynara scolymus L.). Br J Phytother 4:21–26Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liorach R, Espin JC, Tomas-Barberan FA, Ferreres F (2002) Artichoke byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 50:58–64Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gebhardt R (1997) Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McDougall B, King PJ, Wu BW, Hostomsky Z, Reinecke MG, Robinson WE (1998) Dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoyltartaric acids were selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:140–146Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N, Kandhro GA (2008) Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 122:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moon YS, Kashyap ML (2004) Pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetic dyslipidemia. Pharmacotherapy 241:692–1713Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gupta S, Kataria M, Gupta PK, Murganandan S, Yashroy RC (2004) Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 90:185–189Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vats V, Grover JK, Rathi SS (2002) Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 79:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mohammad A, Sahar N, Effat B (2013) Effet of Cynara scolymus on fasting blood sugar of rat. Int J Pharm Ind Res 3:180–182Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ahmadi MN, Madani H, Mahzoni P (2008) Hypoglycemic and hypolipdemic effet of hydro-alcoholic of Cynara scolymus L. extract in alloxan monohydrate-induced diabetes rats to compare with glibenclamide. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 40:148–161Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heckers H, Dittmar K, Schmahl FW, Huth K (1977) Inefficiency of cynarin as therapeutic regimen in familial type II hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis 262:49–53Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gebhardt R (1996) Inhibition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis by artichoke leaf extracts is mainly due to luteolin. Cell Biol Toxicol 10:89–150Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frohlich E, Zigler W (1973) The lipid lowering effects of Cynara scolymus. Subsid Med 25:5–9Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Kadykow M (1971) The influence of 1,5dicaffeoylquinic acid on serum lipids in the experimentally alcoholised rat. Panminerva Med 13:87–150Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wojcicki J (1976) Effect of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid on ethanol-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Short communication. Arzneimittelforschung 26:20–47Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Samochowiec L (1959) Investigations on experimental atherosclerosis. The effect of Cynara scolymus L. and Cynara cardunculus L. on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in white rats. Diss Pharmacother 11:99–200Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lietti A (1977) Choleretic and cholesterol lowering properties of two artichoke extracts. Fitoterapia 48:153–300Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Marakis JC, Booth G (2004) Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering from concomitant dyspepsia. J Altern Complement Med 10:667–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Englisch W, Beckers C, Unkauf M, Ruepp MV, Zinserling (2000) Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung 50:260–265Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Esfandiar HS, Yadollah (2011) Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aerial part of Cynara scolymus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res 52:717–2723Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gebhardt (2002) Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts was reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment. Phytother Res 16:368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mangola EN (1990) Use of traditional medicines in diabetics mellitus. Diabetes Care 10:138–12Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Easwaran PU, Mageshwari, Narayanan G (1991) Therapeutic use of globe artichoke in non – insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Ind J Nutr Dietet 28:321–326Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kulza M, Adamska K, Seńczuk-Przybyłowska M et al (2010) Globe artichokes and the liver. Phytomedecine 69:1122–1126Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gaafar AA, Salma ZA (2013) Phenolic compounds from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts and their antimicrobial activities. J Biol Agric Healthcare 12:2224–3208Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Koubaa J, Damak M et al (1999) Constituents of Cynara cardunculus. Fitoterapia 70:212–213Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kameswara RB, Renuka SP, Rajasekhar MD, Nagaraju N, Appa RC (2003) Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 85:169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Behara YB, Pharm B (2011) Pharmacological studies on artichoke leaf extract -an edible herb of Mediterranean origin. J Pharmaceut Biomed Sci 15:111–600Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gebhardt R (1995) Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144:279–286Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Samochowiec L (1959) Investigations on experimental atherosclerosis. Part XV. The effect of Cynara scolymus L and Cynara cardunculus L on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in white rats Dissertationes. Pharmaceutica 11:99–13Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goldberg RB (1981) Lipid disorders in diabetes. Diabetes Care 45:61–572Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Adzet T, Camarasa J, Laguna JC (1987) Hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Nat Prod 50:612–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Adzet T (1987) Action of an artichoke extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats Acts. Pharm Jugosl 37:183–188Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Betancor-Fernandez A, Perez-Galvez A, Sies H, Stahl W (2003) Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil’s claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity. J Pharm Pharmacol 55:981–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Visioli P, Bogani S, Grande V, Detopoulou Y, Manios C, Galli (2006) Local food and cardioprotection: the role of phytochemicals. Forum Nutr 59:116–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zapolska-Downar D, Zapolski-Downar A, Naruszewicz M, Siennicka A, Krasnodebska B, Koldziej B (2002) Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes. Life Sci 71:2897–08CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brown J, Rice EC (1998) Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radic Res 29:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Perez-Garcia F, Adzet T, Caniqueral S (2000) Activity of artichoke leaf extract on reactive oxygen species in human leukocytes. Free Radic Res 33:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Valerio F, De Bellis P, Lonigro SL, Morelli L, Visconti A, Lavermicocca P (2006) In vitro and in vivo survival and transit tolerance of potentially probiotic strains carried by artichokes in the gastrointestinal tract. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3042–3045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Matuschowski JP (1996) Testing of Cynara scolymus in the isolated perfused rat liver. 43rd Ann Congr Soc Med Plant Res 10:103–107Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Demma J, Engidawork E, Hellman B (2009) Potential genotoxicity of plant extracts used in Ethiopian traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 122:136–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rodrigues CRF, Dias JH, Semedo JG, Silva J, Ferraz JN, Picada (2009) Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia (D.C.). Ethnopharmacol 124:321–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jacociunas LV, Rodrigues d’Andrade HH, Lehmann M, Pedersini LW (2013) Protective activity of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract against chemically induced complex genomic alteration in CHO cells. Phytomedicine 20:1131–1134Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nadova E, Miadokova P, Mucaji D, Grancai LC (2008) Growth inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Cynara cardunculus L. in leukemia cells involves cell arrest, cytochrome c release and activiation of caspases. Phytother Res 22:165–800Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Paschos P, Paletas K (2009) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. Hippokratia 10:19–19Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Preiss D, Sattar N (2008) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an overview of prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment considerations. Clin Sci 115:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Safaa HM, Hanaa HA, Abdelrazik HF, Nahla SA, Abdelaaty AS (2013) Cynara scolymus for relieving on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 1:57–66Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Volker S, Rudolf H, Rational Phytotherapy (2004) A reference guide for physicians and pharmacists by springer 417:232–240Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ernst E, De Smet PA , Shaw D, Muraay V (1998) Traditional remedies and the test of time. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 54:99–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wittemer SM, Ploch M, Windeck T, Muller SC, Drewelow B, Derendorf et al (2005) Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids after oral administration of artichoke leaf extracts in humans. Phytomedicine 12(28):38Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fotis S, Mauramicale G, Raccuia SA, Fallico B, Fanella E, Maccarone E (1999) Possible alternative utilization of Cynara spp. I. Biomass, grain yield and chemical composition of grain. Ind Crop Prod 10:219–228Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fintelman V (1996) Therapeutic profile and mechanism of action of artichoke leaf extract: hypolipemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and choleretic properties. Phytomedica 201:50–60Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schulz H, Rudolf (2004) Rational phototherapy: a reference guide for physicians and pharmacists. Springer 11:232–417Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Meneses M, Megias MD, Madrid J, Martinez-Teruel A, Hernandez F, Oliva J (2007) Evaluation of the phytosanitary, fermentative and nutritive characteristics of the silage made from crude artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by-product feeding for ruminants. Phytomedecine 70:292–296Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gasa J, Castrillo C, Baucells MD, Guada JA (1989) By-products from the canning industry as feedstuff for ruminants, digestibility and its prediction from chemical composition and laboratory bioassays. Anim Feed Sci Technol 25:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marsico G, Vicenti A, Ragni M, Laudadio V, Lestingi A, Vonghi G (1999) The use of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) bracts in lambs feeding. Effect on productive performances and quanti-qualitative traits of carcasses and meat. Agricoltura Ricerca 21:39–48Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jaramillo DP, Buffa MN, Rodriguez M, Perez-Baena I, Guamis B, Trujillo AJ (2010) Effect of the inclusion of artichoke silage in the ration of lactating ewes on the properties of milk and cheese characteristics during ripening. J Dairy Sci 93:1412–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sallam S, Bueno MA, Godoy ICS, Nozella PB, Vitti EF, Abdalla DM (2008) Nutritive value assessment of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) by-product as an alternative feed resource for ruminants. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 8:181–189Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Costabile A, Kolida S, Klinder A, Gietl E, Bauerlein M, Frohberg C, Landschutze V, Gibson GR (2010) A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a verylong-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 104:1007–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Williamson G, Manach C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81:243–255Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Clifford M, Brown JE (2006) Dietary flavonoids and health, broadening the perspective. In: Andersen O, Markham K (eds) Flavonoids: chemistry, biochemistry and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 10,450–600Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brown JE, Rice-Evans CA (1980) Luteolin-rich artichoke extracts protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation in vitro. Free Radic Res 29:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kucukgergin C, Aydin AF, Ozdemirler GO, Mehmetcik G, Kocar-Toker N, Uysal M (2010) Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Biol Trace Elem Res 135:264–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stoev SD (2010) Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens. Res Vet Sci 88, 486–491. 91Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stoev SD, Anguelov G, Ivanov I, Pavlov D (2000) Influence of ochratoxin A and an extract of artichoke on the vaccinal immunity and health in broiler chicks. Exp Toxicol Pathol 52:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryem Ben Salem
    • 1
  • Hanen Affes
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kamilia Ksouda
    • 1
  • Raouia Dhouibi
    • 1
  • Zouheir Sahnoun
    • 1
  • Serria Hammami
    • 1
  • Khaled Mounir Zeghal
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de pharmacologieFaculté de Medecine SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Laboratory of PharmacologyFaculty of Medicine of SfaxSfaxTunisie

Personalised recommendations