Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 317–324 | Cite as

Concentrating Immunoprotective Phytoactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables into Shelf-stable Protein-rich Ingredients

  • Gad G. Yousef
  • Mary H. Grace
  • Jorge L. Guerrero Medina
  • Scott Neff
  • Ivette Guzman
  • Allan F. Brown
  • Ilya Raskin
  • Mary Ann LilaEmail author
Original Paper


Co-delivery of edible proteins with health-protective fruit (muscadine grape) and vegetable (kale) phytoactive compounds was accomplished in a biofortified ingredient for use in convenient, portable food formulations. Polyphenolics were concentrated (10–42 mg/g range) in dry muscadine-protein matrices. Kale-fortified protein matrices also captured polyphenolics (8 mg/g), carotenoids (69 μg/g) and glucosinolates (7 μmol/g). Neither total phenolics nor glucosinolates were significantly diminished even after long term (6 months) storage at 4, 20, or 37 °C, whereas carotenoids degraded over time, particularly at higher temperatures. Dry biofortified phytoactive-protein ingredients allowed delivery of immunoprotective compounds from fruits and vegetables in a stable, lightweight matrix.


Muscadine Kale Polyphenolics Carotenoids Glucosinolates Protein isolate 



Hemp protein


Soy protein isolate


Whey protein isolate


Total phenolics



We are grateful for financial support provided by the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored Industry-University Cooperative Research Center (NSF-I/UCRC), and for the support and advice of Dr. Tom Yang, Senior Food Technologist, Combat Feeding Directorate, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, who served as the Industry Advisory Board champion for this project. Thanks to David “Buddy” Edwards, who supplied fresh kale for this initiative. Thanks also to Muscadine Products Corp. (Wray, GA), The Muscadine Group, LLC (Pine Level, NC), and Davisco Foods International for donated food materials.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gad G. Yousef
    • 1
  • Mary H. Grace
    • 1
  • Jorge L. Guerrero Medina
    • 1
  • Scott Neff
    • 1
  • Ivette Guzman
    • 1
  • Allan F. Brown
    • 2
  • Ilya Raskin
    • 3
  • Mary Ann Lila
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina Research CampusNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural Science, Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina Research CampusNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  3. 3.School of Environmental and Biological SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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