Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 317–324 | Cite as

Concentrating Immunoprotective Phytoactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables into Shelf-stable Protein-rich Ingredients

  • Gad G. Yousef
  • Mary H. Grace
  • Jorge L. Guerrero Medina
  • Scott Neff
  • Ivette Guzman
  • Allan F. Brown
  • Ilya Raskin
  • Mary Ann LilaEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Co-delivery of edible proteins with health-protective fruit (muscadine grape) and vegetable (kale) phytoactive compounds was accomplished in a biofortified ingredient for use in convenient, portable food formulations. Polyphenolics were concentrated (10–42 mg/g range) in dry muscadine-protein matrices. Kale-fortified protein matrices also captured polyphenolics (8 mg/g), carotenoids (69 μg/g) and glucosinolates (7 μmol/g). Neither total phenolics nor glucosinolates were significantly diminished even after long term (6 months) storage at 4, 20, or 37 °C, whereas carotenoids degraded over time, particularly at higher temperatures. Dry biofortified phytoactive-protein ingredients allowed delivery of immunoprotective compounds from fruits and vegetables in a stable, lightweight matrix.

Keywords

Muscadine Kale Polyphenolics Carotenoids Glucosinolates Protein isolate 

Abbreviations

HP50

Hemp protein

SPI

Soy protein isolate

WPI

Whey protein isolate

TP

Total phenolics

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for financial support provided by the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored Industry-University Cooperative Research Center (NSF-I/UCRC), and for the support and advice of Dr. Tom Yang, Senior Food Technologist, Combat Feeding Directorate, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, who served as the Industry Advisory Board champion for this project. Thanks to David “Buddy” Edwards, who supplied fresh kale for this initiative. Thanks also to Muscadine Products Corp. (Wray, GA), The Muscadine Group, LLC (Pine Level, NC), and Davisco Foods International for donated food materials.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Cassidy A, Mukamal KJ, Liu L, Franz M, Eliassen H, Rimm E (2013) High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women. Circulation 127:188–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Pascual-Teresa S, Moreno DA, Garcia-Viguera C (2010) Flavanols and anthocyanins in cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence. Int J Mol Sci 11:1679–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grace MH, Ribnicky DM, Kuhun P, Poulev A, Logendra S, Yousef GG, Raskin I, Lila MA (2009) Hypoglygemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. Phytomedicine 16:406–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng DM, Kutzler LW, Boler DD, Drnevich J, Killefer J, Lila MA (2013) Continuous infusion of 20-hydroxyecdysone increased mass of triceps brachii in C57BL/6 mice. Phytother Res 27:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Knab AM, Shanely RA, Pappan KL, Jin F, Lila MA (2013) Influence of a polyphenol-enriched protein powder on exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in athletes: a randomized trial using a metabolomics approach. PLoS One 8:e72215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chirumbolo S (2012) Plant phytochemicals as new potential drugs for immune disorders and cancer therapy: really a promising path? J Sci Food Agric 92:1573–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zanchi JA (2012) Chapter 1: An overview of U.S. military field feeding and combat rations. In: Barrett AH, Cardello AV (eds) Military food engineering and ration technology. DEStech Publications Inc, Lancaster, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Racicot K, Anderson DJ, Davis BB (2012) Chapter 11. Performance-optimizing ration components. In: Barrett AH, Cardello AV (eds) Military food engineering and ration technology. DEStech Publications Inc, Lancaster, pp 275–295Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lila MA, Cheng D (2012) Comprehensive strategies for evaluating the adaptogenic properties of phytochemicals. In: Carkeet C, Grann K, Randolf R, Venzon D, Izzy S (eds) Phytochemicals: health promotion and therapeutic potential. Taylor and Francis/CRC Press, Florida, pp 95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nieman DC, Stear AJ, Castell LM, Burke LM (2012) A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Br J Sports Med 44:1202–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grace MH, Guzman I, Roopchand DE, Moskal K, Cheng DM, Pogrebnyak N, Raskin I, Howell A, Lila MA (2013) Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications. J Agric Food Chem 61:6856–6864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roopchand DE, Grace MH, Kuhn P, Cheng DM, Plundrich N, Poulev A, Howell A, Fridlender B, Lila MA, Raskin I (2012) Efficient sorption of polyphenols in soybean flour enables natural fortification of foods. Food Chem 131:1193–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ribnicky DM, Roopchand DE, Oren A, Grace M, Poulev A, Lila MA, Havenaar R, Raskin I (2014) Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1). Food Chem 142:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pastrana-Bonilla E, Akoh CC, Sellappan S, Krewer G (2003) Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes. J Agric Food Chem 51:5497–5503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferioli F, Giambanelli E, D’Antuono LF, Costa HS, Albuquerque TG, Silva AS, Hayran O, Kocaoglu B (2013) Comparison of leafy kale populations from Italy, Portugal, and Turkey for their bioactive compound content: phenolics, glucosinolates, carotenoids, and chlorophylls. J Sci Food Agric 93:3478–3489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Velasco P, Cartea MA, González C, Vilar M, Ordáz A (2007) Factors affecting the glucosinolate content of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala group). J Agric Food Chem 55:955–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurilich AC, Tsau GJ, Brown A, Howard L, Klein BP, Jeffery EH, Kushad M, Wallig MA, Juvik JA (1999) Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate contents in subspecies of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem 47:1576–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guzman I, Yousef GG, Brown AF (2012) Simultaneous extraction and quantification of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 60:7238–7244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown AF, Yousef GG, Jeffery EH, Klein PB, Wallig MA, Kushad MM, Juvik JA (2002) Glucosinolate profiles in broccoli: variation in levels and implications in breeding for cancer chemoprotection. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 127:807–813Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt S, Zietz M, Schreiner M, Rohn S, Kroh LW, Krumbein A (2010) Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometer. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2009–2022Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Azevedo CH, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2005) Carotenoid composition of kale as influenced by maturity, season and minimal processing. J Sci Food Agric 85:591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA (2003) Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr 23:171–201Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Ghadirian P (1999) Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada. Nutr Cancer 34:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Terry P, Wolk A, Persson I, Magnusson C (2001) Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc 285:2975–2977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeffery EH, Araya M (2009) Physiological effects of broccoli consumption. Phytochem Rev 8:283–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lippmann D, Lehmann C, Florian S, Barknowitz G, Haack M, Mewis I, Wiesner M, Schreiner M, Glatt H, Brigelius-Flohe R, Kipp AP (2014) Glucosinolates from pak choi and broccoli induce enzymes and inhibit inflammation and colon cancer differently. Food Funct 5:1073–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeffery EH, Keck AS (2008) Translating knowledge generated by epidemiological and in vitro studies into dietary cancer prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 52(Suppl 1):S7–S17Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Angelino D, Jeffery E (2014) Glucosinolate hydrolysis and bioavailability of resulting isothiocyanates: focus on glucoraphanin. J Funct Foods 7:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boon CS, Mcclements DJ, Weiss J, Decker EA (2010) Factors influencing the chemical stability of carotenoids in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:515–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gad G. Yousef
    • 1
  • Mary H. Grace
    • 1
  • Jorge L. Guerrero Medina
    • 1
  • Scott Neff
    • 1
  • Ivette Guzman
    • 1
  • Allan F. Brown
    • 2
  • Ilya Raskin
    • 3
  • Mary Ann Lila
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina Research CampusNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticultural Science, Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina Research CampusNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  3. 3.School of Environmental and Biological SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations