Concentrating Immunoprotective Phytoactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables into Shelf-stable Protein-rich Ingredients
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Co-delivery of edible proteins with health-protective fruit (muscadine grape) and vegetable (kale) phytoactive compounds was accomplished in a biofortified ingredient for use in convenient, portable food formulations. Polyphenolics were concentrated (10–42 mg/g range) in dry muscadine-protein matrices. Kale-fortified protein matrices also captured polyphenolics (8 mg/g), carotenoids (69 μg/g) and glucosinolates (7 μmol/g). Neither total phenolics nor glucosinolates were significantly diminished even after long term (6 months) storage at 4, 20, or 37 °C, whereas carotenoids degraded over time, particularly at higher temperatures. Dry biofortified phytoactive-protein ingredients allowed delivery of immunoprotective compounds from fruits and vegetables in a stable, lightweight matrix.
KeywordsMuscadine Kale Polyphenolics Carotenoids Glucosinolates Protein isolate
Soy protein isolate
Whey protein isolate
We are grateful for financial support provided by the Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS), a National Science Foundation-sponsored Industry-University Cooperative Research Center (NSF-I/UCRC), and for the support and advice of Dr. Tom Yang, Senior Food Technologist, Combat Feeding Directorate, US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center, who served as the Industry Advisory Board champion for this project. Thanks to David “Buddy” Edwards, who supplied fresh kale for this initiative. Thanks also to Muscadine Products Corp. (Wray, GA), The Muscadine Group, LLC (Pine Level, NC), and Davisco Foods International for donated food materials.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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