Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 69, Issue 3, pp 228–234 | Cite as

Evaluation of Different Cooking Conditions on Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to Improve the Nutritional Value and Consumer Acceptance

  • Radhika Bongoni
  • Ruud Verkerk
  • Bea Steenbekkers
  • Matthijs Dekker
  • Markus Stieger
Original Paper


The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’ firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17 %). Boiling-hot start (−41 %) and boiling-cold start (−50 %) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at ‘high’ and ‘medium’ firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at ‘medium’ firmness, and flavour at ‘medium’ and ‘low’ firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.


Glucosinolates Firmness Greenness Sensory evaluation Consumers 





Water-vegetable ratio



We thank Tjachy Hu for the contribution towards data collection.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2014_420_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (18 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radhika Bongoni
    • 1
  • Ruud Verkerk
    • 1
  • Bea Steenbekkers
    • 1
  • Matthijs Dekker
    • 1
  • Markus Stieger
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Quality and DesignWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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