Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 411–415 | Cite as

Absorption and Bioavailability of Antioxidant Phytochemicals and Increase of Serum Oxidation Resistance in Healthy Subjects Following Supplementation with Raisins

  • P. T. Kanellos
  • A. C. Kaliora
  • A. Gioxari
  • G. O. Christopoulou
  • N. KalogeropoulosEmail author
  • V. T. Karathanos
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial impact of raisin supplementation in serum resistance to oxidation of healthy subjects, to quantify the bioavailable phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid. The content of phytochemicals in raisins was determined by GC-MS. Fifteen healthy volunteers who consumed 144 g of raisins were subjected to blood collection at time 0 and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after consumption. Blood samples were used for the quantification of (a) serum oxidizability (b) plasma total polyphenol content and (c) phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid by applying GC–MS analysis. A total of 25 phytochemicals were identified and quantified in raisins, while the triterpenoid oleanolic acid was present at the highest concentration. The peak of plasma total phenolics and serum oxidation resistance appeared 1 h after raisin supplementation (p < 0.05) and correlated strongly with each other. Seventeen phytochemicals (16 phenolics and oleanolic acid) were clearly identified and quantified in volunteers’ plasma. Each compound followed different kinetics, however 13 out of 17 peaked in plasma also 1 h after supplementation. The results indicate that raisins influence antioxidant potential in vivo, while the contained phytochemicals are bioavailable.


Raisins Serum oxidizability Phenolic compounds Oleanolic acid Bioavailability GC-MS 





Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


Internal standard


Phosphate-buffered solution


Retention time


Solid phase extraction


Gallic acid equivalents



The study was funded by the Corinthian Raisins Cooperative SKOS A.S.E. within the framework of NSRF 2007–2013 Programme for Development, Greek Ministry for Development, Competitiveness and Shipping. Corinthian Raisins were kindly donated by the Agricultural Cooperatives Union—Aeghion, Greece (P.E.S. Union).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2013_389_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (101 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 101 kb)


  1. 1.
    Arts IC, Hollman PC (2005) Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81:317S–325SGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blasa M, Gennari L, Angelino D, Ninfali P (2010) Fruit and vegetable antioxidants in health. In: Watson RR, Preedy VR (eds) Bioactive foods in promoting health, 1st edn. Elsevier, London, pp 37–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett LE, Jegasothy H, Konczak I et al (2011) Total polyphenolics and anti-oxidant properties of selected dried fruits and relationships to drying conditions. J Funct Foods 3:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Karadeniz F, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE (2000) Polyphenolic composition of raisins. J Agric Food Chem 48:5343–5350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chiou A, Karathanos VT, Mylona A et al (2007) Currants (Vitis vinifera L.) content of simple phenolics and antioxidant activity. Food Chem 102:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arendt BM, Ellinger S, Kekic K et al (2005) Single and repeated moderate consumption of native or dealcoholized red wine show different effects on antioxidant parameters in blood and DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN68505294). Nutr J 4:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aurrekoetxea I, Ruiz-Sanz JI, del Agua AR et al (2010) Serum oxidizability and antioxidant status in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 94:1279–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Esterbauer H, Jurgens G (1993) Mechanistic and genetic aspects of susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. Curr Opin Lipidol 4:114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shahrzad S, Bitsch I (1998) Determination of gallic acid and its metabolites in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 705:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Karumanchiri A, Goldberg DM (1997) A multiresidue derivatization gas chromatographic assay for fifteen phenolic constituents with mass selective detection. Anal Chem 69:4405–4409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bunea CI, Pop N, Babeş AC et al (2012) Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems. Chem Cent J 6:66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chiva-Blanch G, Visioli F (2012) Polyphenols and health: moving beyond antioxidants. J Berry Res 2:63–71. doi: 10.3233/JBR-2012-028 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heuckenkamp PU, Zollner N (1971) Fructose-induced hyperuricaemia. Lancet 1:808–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schirrmacher G, Skurk T, Hauner H, Graßmann J (2010) Effect of Spinacia oleraceae L. and Perilla frutescens L. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in an intervention study in healthy individuals. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kanellos PT (2009) Determination of vitamins in Corinthian currants. BSc Thesis, Harokopio University, (in Greek)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25 (Accessed March 10, 2013)
  17. 17.
    Niki E (2011) Antioxidant capacity: which capacity and how to assess it? J Berry Res 1:169–176. doi: 10.3233/JBR-2011-018 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Niki E (2012) Do antioxidants impair signaling by reactive oxygen species and lipid oxidation products? FEBS Lett 586:3767–3770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pérez-Jiménez J, Serrano J, Tabernero M et al (2009) Bioavailability of phenolic antioxidants associated with dietary fiber: plasma antioxidant capacity after acute and long-term intake in humans. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forester SC, Waterhouse AL (2009) Metabolites are key to understanding health effects of wine polyphenolics. J Nutr 138:1824S–1831SCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. T. Kanellos
    • 1
  • A. C. Kaliora
    • 1
  • A. Gioxari
    • 1
  • G. O. Christopoulou
    • 1
  • N. Kalogeropoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. T. Karathanos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Science of Dietetics-NutritionHarokopio UniversityKallitheaGreece

Personalised recommendations