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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 411–415 | Cite as

Absorption and Bioavailability of Antioxidant Phytochemicals and Increase of Serum Oxidation Resistance in Healthy Subjects Following Supplementation with Raisins

  • P. T. Kanellos
  • A. C. Kaliora
  • A. Gioxari
  • G. O. Christopoulou
  • N. KalogeropoulosEmail author
  • V. T. Karathanos
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial impact of raisin supplementation in serum resistance to oxidation of healthy subjects, to quantify the bioavailable phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid. The content of phytochemicals in raisins was determined by GC-MS. Fifteen healthy volunteers who consumed 144 g of raisins were subjected to blood collection at time 0 and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after consumption. Blood samples were used for the quantification of (a) serum oxidizability (b) plasma total polyphenol content and (c) phenolic compounds and oleanolic acid by applying GC–MS analysis. A total of 25 phytochemicals were identified and quantified in raisins, while the triterpenoid oleanolic acid was present at the highest concentration. The peak of plasma total phenolics and serum oxidation resistance appeared 1 h after raisin supplementation (p < 0.05) and correlated strongly with each other. Seventeen phytochemicals (16 phenolics and oleanolic acid) were clearly identified and quantified in volunteers’ plasma. Each compound followed different kinetics, however 13 out of 17 peaked in plasma also 1 h after supplementation. The results indicate that raisins influence antioxidant potential in vivo, while the contained phytochemicals are bioavailable.

Keywords

Raisins Serum oxidizability Phenolic compounds Oleanolic acid Bioavailability GC-MS 

Abbreviations

BSTFA

Bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro-acetamide

GC-MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

IS

Internal standard

PBS

Phosphate-buffered solution

RT

Retention time

SPE

Solid phase extraction

GAE

Gallic acid equivalents

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was funded by the Corinthian Raisins Cooperative SKOS A.S.E. within the framework of NSRF 2007–2013 Programme for Development, Greek Ministry for Development, Competitiveness and Shipping. Corinthian Raisins were kindly donated by the Agricultural Cooperatives Union—Aeghion, Greece (P.E.S. Union).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2013_389_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (101 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 101 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. T. Kanellos
    • 1
  • A. C. Kaliora
    • 1
  • A. Gioxari
    • 1
  • G. O. Christopoulou
    • 1
  • N. Kalogeropoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. T. Karathanos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Science of Dietetics-NutritionHarokopio UniversityKallitheaGreece

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