Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 90–95 | Cite as

Germination of Oat and Quinoa and Evaluation of the Malts as Gluten Free Baking Ingredients

  • Outi E. Mäkinen
  • Emanuele Zannini
  • Elke K. Arendt
Original Paper


Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation.


Pseudocereals Germination CLSM SEM 



Celiac disease


Confocal laser scanning microscopy


European Food Safety Authority


US Food and Drug Administration


Fluorescein isothiocyanate




Rapid visco analyzer


Scanning electron microscopy


Whey protein isolate


Excitation wavelength



The authors wish to thank Eva Bernardis for technical assistance. This study was funded by the Food Institutional Research Measure (FIRM) administered by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Ireland).

Supplementary material

11130_2013_335_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (283 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 283 kb)
11130_2013_335_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (964 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 964 kb)
11130_2013_335_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 3 (PDF 1216 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Outi E. Mäkinen
    • 1
  • Emanuele Zannini
    • 1
  • Elke K. Arendt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Food Technology and NutritionNational University of IrelandCorkIreland

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