Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 178–185 | Cite as

Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortillas Obtained after Lime-Cooking Extrusion Process of Whole Pigmented Mexican Maize

  • Jesús Aguayo-Rojas
  • Saraid Mora-Rochín
  • Edith O. Cuevas-Rodríguez
  • Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar
  • Janet A. Gutierrez-Uribe
  • Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno
  • Jorge Milán-Carrillo
Original Paper


The lime-cooking extrusion represents an alternative technology for manufacturing pre-gelatinized flours for tortillas with the advantages of saving energy and generation of null effluents. The phytochemical profiles (total phenolics, anthocyanins) and antioxidant activity of four different types of whole pigmented Mexican maize [white (WM), yellow (YM), red (RM), blue maize (BM)] processed into tortillas were studied. The lime-cooking extrusion process caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity when compared to raw kernels. Most of the total phenols assayed in raw grains (76.1–84.4 %) were bound. Tortillas from extruded maize flours retained 76.4–87.5 % of total phenolics originally found in raw grains. The BM had the highest anthocyanin content (27.52 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g DW). The WM, YM, RM and NWM contained 3.3, 3.4, 2.9, and 2.2 %, respectively, of the amount of anthocyanins found in BM. The BM lost 53.5 % of total anthocyanins when processed into extruded tortillas. Approximately 64.7 to 74.5 % of bound phytochemicals from raw kernels were the primary contributors to the ORAC values. Extruded tortillas retained amongst 87.2 to 90.7 % of total hydrophilic antioxidant activity when compared to raw kernels. Compared to the data reported by other authors using the conventional process, the lime-cooking extrusion process allowed the retention of more phenolics and antioxidant compounds in all tortillas.


Lime-cooking extrusion Whole pigmented Mexican maize Tortilla Total phenolics Anthocyanins Antioxidant activity 



This research was partially supported by the Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Project PROFAPI-2010), and PROMEP/SEP (Project 2010, Thematic Networks for Cooperation, Food Biotechnology).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesús Aguayo-Rojas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saraid Mora-Rochín
    • 2
  • Edith O. Cuevas-Rodríguez
    • 2
  • Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar
    • 3
  • Janet A. Gutierrez-Uribe
    • 3
  • Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jorge Milán-Carrillo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Maestría en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Químico Biológicas (FCQB)Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS)CuliacánMéxico
  2. 2.Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Química Biológicas (FCQB)Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS)CuliacánMéxico
  3. 3.Departamento de Biotecnología e Ingeniería de Alimentos, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey-Campus MonterreyMonterreyMéxico
  4. 4.CuliacánMéxico

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