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Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 157–162 | Cite as

Antioxidant Properties of Amaranthus hypochondriacus Seeds and their Effect on the Liver of Alcohol-Treated Rats

  • Viviana Romina Lucero López
  • Gabriela Silvina Razzeto
  • María Sofía Giménez
  • Nora Lilian Escudero
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Amaranth constitutes a valuable pseudocereal, due to its nutritional quality and its nutraceutical properties, which contribute to improve human health. This work evaluated the effect of a diet based on Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Ah) seed on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in the liver of rats sub-chronically exposed to ethanol. The seed extract was investigated for antioxidant capacity in vitro, showing an adequate content of total phenols and antioxidant activity elevated. For in vivo assays, four groups of six rats each were fed with an AIN-93 M diet for 28 days. In groups III and IV casein was replaced by Ah as the protein source; groups II and IV were received ethanol in the drinking water (20% v/v). When comparing groups IV and II, the following was observed: significant decrease in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and content of malondialdehyde (p < 0.001) in serum; decrease of malondialdehyde and increase in the activity and gene expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, also, decrease in the NADPH oxidase transcript levels (p < 0.05) in liver. Our data suggest that Ah is a good source of total phenols and exerts a protective effect in serum and in liver of rats intoxicated with ethanol.

Keywords

Amaranthus hypochondriacus Antioxidant enzymes Ethanol Oxidative stress Total phenols 

Abbreviations

ADH

alcohol dehydrogense

Ah

Amaranthus hypochondriacus

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BHT

Buthylated hydroxy toluene

CAT

Catalase

CYP2E1

Cytochrome P450-2E1

DNPH

2,4-dinitrophenylhidrazine

DPPH

1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

GGT

Gamma glutamyl transferase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

M-MLV

Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NO

Nitric oxide

NO test

Scavenging activity against nitric oxide

NOX

NADPH oxidase

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RSA

Radical scavenging activity

RT

Reverse transcription

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBARS

Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances

TMP

1,1,3,3-tetramethoxypropane

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Engineer Guillermo Peiretti (Professor of the Agronomical and Veterinary Sciences Department National University of Rio Cuarto) for kindly providing the seeds employed in this work, obtained as an original variety from an experimental cultivation.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Viviana Romina Lucero López
    • 1
  • Gabriela Silvina Razzeto
    • 1
  • María Sofía Giménez
    • 1
  • Nora Lilian Escudero
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Biology Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and PharmacyNational University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, Chacabuco and PederneraSan LuisArgentina

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