Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 271–276 | Cite as

Protective Effect of Maize Silks (Maydis stigma) Ethanol Extract on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

  • Hua Bai
  • Chunxu Hai
  • Miaomiao Xi
  • Xin Liang
  • Rui Liu
Original Paper

Abstract

Maize silks, dried cut stigmata of maize female flowers, are a traditional medicinal plant. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of maize silks ethanol extract (MSE) against oxidative damage in vivo. γ-radiation was employed to induce oxidative stress in mice and the variation of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG), blood cells, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and related antioxidant enzymes were examined. The results showed that radiation elevate levels of MDA, induce hematological abnormalities and decrease levels of GSH/GSSG and Nrf2 expression in liver and kidney. MSE administration significantly abolished elevation of MDA levels in liver, maintained hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio and ameliorated hematological abnormalities dose dependently. Moreover, MSE up-regulated the hepatic protein expression of Nrf2 dose dependently and the activities as well as protein expression of Nrf2-related antioxidant enzymes were also increased. However, the antioxidant ability of MSE seemed not to be as effective in kidney as in liver. These findings firstly proved the protective role of MSE against oxidative stress, which was in part via up-regulation of Nrf2 and seemed to be tissue specific.

Keywords

Antioxidant enzyme Maize silks ethanol extract NF-E2-related factor-2 Oxidative stress Radiation 

Abbreviations

CAT

Catalase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

HGB

Hemoglobin

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MSE

Maize silks ethanol extract

Nrf2

NF-E2-related factor-2

·OH

Hydroxyl radical

O2•−

Superoxide anion

PLT

Thrombocytes

RBC

Red blood cell

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

WBC

White blood cell

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, No S2009JC1186.

References

  1. 1.
    Maksimovic Z, Malencic D, Kovacevic N (2005) Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresour Technol 96:873–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    El-Ghorab A, El-Massry KF, Shibamoto T (2007) Chemical composition of the volatile extract and antioxidant activities of the volatile and nonvolatile extracts of Egyptian corn silk (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food Chem 55:9124–9127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin M, Chu QC, Tian XH, Ye JN (2007) Determination of active ingredients in corn silk, leaf, and kernel by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemicaI detection. J Capill Electrophor Microchip Technol 10:51–56Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Velazquez DV, Xavier HS, Batista JE, de Castro-Chaves C (2005) Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats. Phytomedicine 12:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maksimovic Z, Dobric S, Kovacevic N, Milovanovic Z (2004) Diuretic activity of Maydis stigma extract in rats. Pharmazie 59:967–971Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maksimovic ZA, Kovacevic N (2003) Preliminary assay on the antioxidative activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Fitoterapia 74:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Farsi DA, Harris CS, Reid L, Bennett SA, Haddad PS, Martineau LC, Arnason JT (2008) Inhibition of non-enzymatic glycation by silk extracts from a Mexican land race and modern inbred lines of maize (Zea mays). Phytother Res 22:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yagi K (1976) A simple fluorometric assay for lipoperoxide in blood plasma. Biochem Med 15:212–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hissin PJ, Hilf R (1976) A fluorometric method for determination of oxidized and reduced glutathione in tissues. Anal Biochem 74:214–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kono Y (1978) Generation of superoxide radical during autoxidation of hydroxylamine and an assay for superoxide dismutase. Arch Biochem Biophys 186:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Qin XJ, He W, Hai CX, Liang X, Liu R (2008) Protection of multiple antioxidants Chinese herbal medicine on the oxidative stress induced by adriamycin chemotherapy. J Appl Toxicol 28:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Riley PA (1994) Free radicals in biology: oxidative stress and the effects of ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 65:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jenrich R, Tropetter I, Bak S, Olsen C, Moller BL, Piotowski M (2007) Evolution of heteromeric nitrilase complexes in Poacae with new functions in nitrile metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18848–18853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Newal CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD (1996) Herbal medicine: a guide for health-care professionals. Pharmaceutical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bump EA, Brown JM (1990) Role of glutathione in the radiation response of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacol Ther 47:117–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lu SC (2009) Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Mol Aspects Med 30:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pourahmad J, Eskandari MR, Shakibaei R, Kamalinejad M (2010) A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen T, Sherratt PJ, Pickett CB (2003) Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 43:233–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kobayashi A, Ohta T, Yamamoto M (2004) Unique function of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in the inducible expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Meth Enzymol 378:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Itoh K, Chiba T, Takahashi S, Ishii T, Igarashi K, Katoh Y, Oyake T, Hayashi N, Satoh K, Hatayama I, Yamamoto M, Nabeshima Y (1997) An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 236:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Udayakumar R, Kasthurirengan S, Vasudevan A, Mariashibu TS, Rayan JJ, Choi CW, Ganapathi A, Kim SC (2010) Antioxidant effect of dietary supplement Withania somnifera L. reduce blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s11130-009-0146-8 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua Bai
    • 1
  • Chunxu Hai
    • 1
  • Miaomiao Xi
    • 2
  • Xin Liang
    • 1
  • Rui Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Preventive MedicineFourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, Xijing HospitalFourth Military Medical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations