Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 311–318

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance

  • Brian David Craft
  • Agnieszka Kosińska
  • Ryszard Amarowicz
  • Ronald Bruce Pegg
Original Paper

Abstract

Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial practices. Eighty percent (v/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A Spanish high-oleic peanut possessed the greatest naturally-occurring level of p-coumaric acid and its derivatives, followed by a high-oleic Runner, a normal Runner, and a Virginia peanut. Upon thermal processing, p-coumaric acid was liberated at the expense of its derivatives according to the relationship: oil roasting > dry roasting > raw. A high-oleic Runner exhibited the greatest increase (∼785%) in free p-coumaric acid levels after oil roasting. For many of the samples from the 2007 crop, processing increased the TPC and antioxidant capacities in the order of raw < dry roast < oil roast, but results were cultivar dependent. Oil-roasted peanuts were more effective at scavenging O2- than their dry-roasted counterparts, as determined by a photochemiluminescence assay. Overall findings indicate that although thermal processing altered the composition of peanut kernel antioxidants, TPC values and radical-scavenging activities are preserved. Depending on peanut type, cultivar, and harvest date, enhanced antioxidant capacities can result.

Keywords

Antioxidant activity Arachis hypogaea L. p-Coumaric acid ORACFL Peanuts Phenolics Radical-scavenging capacity 

Abbreviations

AAPH

2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride

ABTS

2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

ABTS●+

2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation

BHA

butylated hydroxyanisole

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EP

edible peanut

EQ

equivalents

FL

fluorescein (3′6′-dihydroxy-spiro[isobenzofuran-1[3H],9′[9H]-xanthen]-3-one)

MUFA

monounsaturated fatty acids

O2-

superoxide radical anion

ORACFL

oxygen radical absorbance capacity (fluorescein probe)

PCLACW

Photochem® water soluble antioxidant capacity

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acids

RO2

peroxyl radical

TBHQ

tert-butylhydroquinone

TEAC

Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

TPC

total phenolics content

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian David Craft
    • 1
    • 3
  • Agnieszka Kosińska
    • 2
  • Ryszard Amarowicz
    • 2
  • Ronald Bruce Pegg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Division of Food ScienceInstitute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of SciencesOlsztynPoland
  3. 3.Department of Food Science & TechnologyNestlé Research CenterLausanne 26Switzerland

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