Nutrient Content of Carob Pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Flour Prepared Commercially and Domestically

  • Faik A. Ayaz
  • Hülya Torun
  • Robert H. Glew
  • Zehra D. Bak
  • Luther T. Chuang
  • Jack M. Presley
  • Ronnie Andrews
Original Paper

Abstract

Although the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae) is nutritious and widely available in Turkey, especially in West and South Anatolia, much remains to be learned about its nutrient composition. The main goal of our study was to determine if there are differences in the content of certain nutrients in commercially-prepared carob flour (CPCP) and domestic or home-prepared carob powder (HPCP). Sucrose was the main sugar in CPCP and HPCP. Total protein was 40% lower in CPCP than HPCP due mainly to decreases in the content of several essential amino acids. However, except for lysine in CPCP, HPCP and CPCP compared favourably to a WHO protein standard. There were large differences in terms of their content of the two essential fatty acids, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and the linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio was 3.6 for CPCP, and 6.1 for HPCP. Manganese and iron were 2.5-fold higher in HPCP than CPCP. This study demonstrates that carob flour prepared in either the household or industrially is a good source of many, but not all essential nutrients, and that commercial processing of carob fruit into flour seems to affect its content of several important nutrients.

Keywords

Ceratonia siliqua Carob pod Sugar Minerals Fatty acids Amino acids 

Abbreviations

AA

Ascorbic acid

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HPCP

Home-prepared carob powder

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

MUSFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

MVD

Micro-vacuum degasser

CPCP

Commercially-prepared carob powder

PUSFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

RID

Refractive index detector

TCC

Thermostated column compartment

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faik A. Ayaz
    • 1
  • Hülya Torun
    • 1
  • Robert H. Glew
    • 2
  • Zehra D. Bak
    • 1
  • Luther T. Chuang
    • 3
  • Jack M. Presley
    • 4
  • Ronnie Andrews
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of BiologyKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of MedicineUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyYuanpei UniversityHsin ChuTaiwan
  4. 4.Molecular Structure FacilityUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  5. 5.National Institute of Occupational Health and SafetyCincinnatiUSA

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