Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 65–70 | Cite as

Extensive Screening for Edible Herbal Extracts with Potent Scavenging Activity against Superoxide Anions

  • Keita Saito
  • Masahiro Kohno
  • Fumihiko Yoshizaki
  • Yoshimi NiwanoEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)–OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff.

Keywords

Edible herbal extracts Superoxide scavenging activity 

Abbreviations

SOD

superoxide dismutase

ESR

electron spin resonance

HPX

hypoxanthine

XOD

xanthine oxidase

DMPO

5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant of Kampou Science Foundation.

References

  1. 1.
    Skulachev VP (2005) Biogenetic aspects of apoptosis, necrosis and mitoptosis. Apoptosis 4:473–485Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wallace DC (2005) A mitochondrial paradigm of metabolic and degenerative diseases, aging, and cancer: a dawn for evolutionary medicine. Annu Rev Genet 39:359–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jezak P, Hlavata L (2005) Mitochondria in homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in cell, tissues, and organism. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2478–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keele BB, McCord JM, Fridovoch I (1970) Superoxide dismutase from Escherichia coli B. J Biol Chem 245:6176–6181Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldstein S, Meyerstein D, Czapski G (1993) The Fenton reagents. Free Radic Biol Med 15:435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haber F, Weiss J (1934) The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by iron salts. Proc R Soc London Ser A 147:332–351Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buettner GR (1987) Spin trapping: ESR parameters of spin adducts. Free Rad Biol Med 3:259–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rosen H, Klebanoff SJ (1979) Hydroxyl radical generation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes measures by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. J Clin Invest 64:1725–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanabe K, Masuda A, Hirayama S, Nagase S, Kono I, Kuno S (2006) Effect of spontaneous exercise on antioxidant capacity in rat muscles determined by electron spin resonance. Acta Physiol 186:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Opie LH, Lecour S (2007) The red wine hypothesis: from concepts to protective signaling molecules. Eur Heart J 28:1683–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karatzi KN, Papamichael CM, Karatzis EN, Papaioannou TG, Aznaouridis KA, Katsichti PP, Stamatelopoulos KS, Zampelas A, Lekakis JP, Mavrikakis ME (2005) Red wine acutely induces favorable effects wave reflections and central pressures in coronary artery disease patients. Am J Hypertens 18:1161–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Papamichael C, Karatzi K, Karatzis E, Papaioannou TG, Katsichti P, Zampelas A, Lekakis J (2006) Combined acute effects of red wine consumption and cigarette smoking on haemodynamics of young smokers. J Hypertens 24:1287–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sato M, Maulik N, Das DK (2002) Cardioprotection with alcohol: role of both alcohol and polyphenolic antioxidants. Ann NY Acad Sci 957:122–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martinez J, Moreno JJ (2000) Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on reactive oxygen species and prostaglandin production. Biochem Pharmacol 59:865–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leonard SS, Xia C, Jiang BH, Stinefelt B, Klandorf H, Harris GK, Shi X (2003) Resveratrol scavenges reactive oxygen species and effects radical-induced cellular responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 309:1017–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE (1993) Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341:454–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kanner J, Frankel EN, Granit R, German B, Kinsella JE (1994) Natural antioxidant in grapes and wines. J Agric Food Chem 42:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kinsella JE, Frankel EN, German JB, Kanner J (1993) Possible mechanisms for the protective role of antioxidants in wine and plant foods. Food Technol 47(4):85–89Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sato E, Kohno M, Hamano H, Niwano Y (2006) Increased anti-oxidative potency of garlic by spontaneous short-term fermentation. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 61:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sato E, Niwano Y, Matsuyama Y, Kim D, Nakashima T, Oda T, Kohno M (2007) Some dinophycean red tide planktons generate a superoxide scavenging substance. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:704–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Niwano Y, Sato E, Kohno M, Matsuyama Y, Kim D, Oda T (2007) Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from red tide plankton cultures. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:1145–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kohno M, Mizuta Y, Kusai M, Masumizu T, Makino K (1994) Measurements of superoxide anion radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity by electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with DMPO spin trapping. Bull Chem Soc Jpn 67:1085–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schanderl SH (1970) Tannins and related phenolics. In: Joslyn MA (ed) Methods in Food Analysis. Academic, New York, pp 701–724Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Watts RW, Wats JA, Seegmiller LE (1965) Xanthine oxidase activity in human tissues and its inhibition by allopurinol (4-hydroxypyarazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine). J Lab Clin Med 66:688–697Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nicoué EE, Savard S, Belkacemi K (2007) Anthocyanins in Wild Blueberries of Quebec: Extraction and Identification. J Agric Food Chem 55:5626–5635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cui T, Nakamura K, Tian S, Kayahara H, Yian YL (2006) Polyphenolic content and physiological activities of Chinese hawthorn extracts. Biosci.Biotechnol Biochem 50:2948–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cerdá B, Llorach R, Cerón JJ, Espín JC, Tomás-Barberán FA (2003) Evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism in the rat of punicalagin, an antioxidant polyphenols from pomegranate juice. Eur J Nutr 42:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Prabhu S, Jainu M, Sabitha KE, Devi CS (2006) Role of mangiferin on biochemical alterations and antioxidant status in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 107:126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Habib-ur-Rehman, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, Khaliq N, Atta-ur-Rahman, Choudhary MI, Malik S (2007) Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica. Nat Prod Res 21:775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keita Saito
    • 1
  • Masahiro Kohno
    • 1
  • Fumihiko Yoshizaki
    • 3
  • Yoshimi Niwano
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.New Industry Creation Hatchery CenterTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Functional Food Materials, Sunny Health Holdings Co., Ltd.Saito Biotechnology Incubator7-7-15 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, OsakaJapan
  3. 3.Department of PharmacognosyTohoku Pharmaceutical UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations