Commercial Soy Protein Ingredients as Isoflavone Sources for Functional Foods
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The knowledge of the contents and profile of isoflavones present in soy protein ingredients, as well as the effect of industrial processing, is important for the development of functional foods rich in these compounds. The results obtained here showed that the total isoflavone content varied significantly among products. For defatted and whole soy flours the total isoflavone content ranged from 120 to 340 mg/100 g, for soy protein isolates from 88 to 164 mg/100 g, and for commercial textured soy proteins, from 66 to 183 mg/100 g (wet basis, expressed as aglycones). The highest isoflavone content was found for soy hypocotyl flours, from 542 to 851 mg/100 g. Compared to hypocotyl and whole and defatted flours, soy ingredients presented a decrease of malonylglycosides and deesterified β-glycosides with a significant increase in the percentage of aglycones, mainly for soy fibers (65–76%). While defatting was shown to cause isoflavone concentration without altering conjugation, extrusion process caused destruction of isoflavones and a significant increase in the amount of acetylglycosides, but this effect was less intense for the concentrates. From the results obtained it can be concluded that differences in isoflavone concentration and profile may be related to oscillations in the isoflavone content present in the raw material and to the type of processing.
Key wordsisoflavones soy protein ingredients processing functional foods
To FAPESP and CNPq, for the financial support to this work, CNPQ and CAPES for the grants to Márcia da Silva Pinto and Ana Cristina Lopes Barbosa.
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