Advertisement

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 70–77 | Cite as

A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Utilization Technologies of Pumpkin

  • FU CAILI
  • SHI HUAN
  • LI QUANHONG
Article

Abstract.

Dietary plants and herbal preparations have been traditionally used as medicine in developing countries and obtained a resurgence of use in the United States and Europe. Research carried out in last few decades has validated several such claims of use of traditional medicine plants. Popularity of pumpkin in various systems of traditional medicine for several ailments (antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antitumor, immunomodulation, antibacterial, antihypercholesterolemia, intestinal antiparasitia, antiinflammation, antalgic) focused the investigators’ attention on this plant. Considerable evidence from several epidemiological studies concerning bioactivities leads have stimulated a number of animal model, cell culture studies and clinical trials designed to test this pharmacological actions. In addition, it was found that technologies such as germination and fermentation could reduce antinutritional materials and affect the pharmacological activities of pumpkin. This review will focus on the main medicinal properties and technologies of pumpkin, and point out areas for future research to further elucidate mechanisms whereby this compound may reduce disease risk.

Key words:

Pharmacological activities Pumpkin Review Technologies Traditional medicine 

Introduction

The use of dietary plants and herbal preparations as alternative medicine has recently received considerable attention in the United States and Europe. There is an estimation that 12.1% of adults in the United States used herbal medicines in 1997 [1]. In 2001, $17.8 billion was spent on dietary supplements, 23.6% of it for herbal remedies [2]. In addition, in America, herbal medicines are regulated as dietary supplements and hence can be marketed without prior approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) [3]. In developing countries–all over the world–80% of population continues to use traditional medicine in primary medical problems [4]. In the past decade, research has been focused on scientific evaluation of dietary plants and preparations of plant origin. Pumpkin is one such plant that has been frequently used as functional food or medicine.

The pumpkin belongs to the family Cucubitaceae. It is comprised of Cucurbita moschata, C. Pepo, C. Maxima, C. Mixta, C. Ficifolia and Telfairia occidentalis Hook. Three of these, Cucurbita pepo L., Cucurbita maxima Duchesne, and Cucurbita moschata Duchesne represent economically important species cultivated worldwide and have high production [5, 6, 7]. In Austria and adjacent countries, pumpkins have been grown for production of oil for about 3 centuries [8]. Several reviews were described from different points of view. Paris provides a entire overview of the classification of various types of squash and pumpkins within the species C. pepo [9]. A comprehensive description of fruit of both wild and domesticated forms of Cucurbita and a critical reviews on physiological aspects of productivity and quality in squash and pumpkins were provide by Decker-Walters and Walters [10] and J. Brent Loy [11], respectively.
Fig. 1.

Recovery for pumpkin bioactive materials.

Pumpkin is a dicotyledonous seed vegetable and consists of a flexible succulent stem with trifoliate leaves, an annual climber growing to 0.6 m by 5 m at a fast rate (http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Cucurbita+moschata). At maturity it gives rise to flowers and fruits, which have numerous seeds. Because embryo dry material is 40 to 50% lipids [12, 13, 14] and 30 to 37% proteins [14, 15], pumpkin seeds are a high-energy source and are consumed throughout the world with increasing in popularity. Because the seed coat comprises about 20% of the seed weight of C. pepo [16], and in C. maxima, even a much larger proportion of the seed, new technologies were sought to utilize in oil seed pumpkins. At about the turn of the twentieth century, a thin seed coat variant was discovered and subsequently applied in oil seed pumpkins because of the greater efficiency in oil recovery. In addition, pumpkin seeds are also a good source of the elements K, P, Fe and β-carotene [17, 18].

Pumpkin is cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. It has been used traditionally as medicine in many countries such as China, Yugoslavia, Argentina, India, Mexico, Brazil and America [19, 20, 21]. Some of its common uses in most countries are for diabetes and treating internally as well as externally for management of worms and parasites. However, it is commonly consumed as vegetable.

Its popular medicinal uses have focused research so far and the last few decades that have been carried out on pumpkin, using modern tools, and credited pumpkin with antidiabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, immunomodulation, antibacteria, antihypercholesterolemia, intestinal antiparasitia, antiinflammation and antalgic. It was found that technologies such as germination and ferment could reduce antinutritional materials and affect the pharmacological activities of pumpkin. This review will focus on the the main medicinal properties of pumpkin, and point out areas for future research to further elucidate mechanisms whereby this compound may reduce disease risk.

Phytochemistry and Technology

Pumpkin contains biologically active components that include polysaccharides, para-aminobenzoic acid, fixed oils, sterol, proteins and peptides [22, 23, 24, 25]. The fruits are a good source of carotenoid and γ-aminobutyric acid [26, 27, 28, 29, 30]. However, the presence of antinutrients in pumpkin seeds which have been shown to have detrimental physiological effects on growing rats and chicks limits its nutritional value and hence limits the usefulness of fresh pumpkin seed as a protein source for human food [31, 32, 33].

Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated [34, 35, 36, 37, 38].

The hypoglycemic chemicals of pumpkin include polysaccharides from the fruit pulp [39, 40, 41], oil from ungerminated seeds and protein from germinated seeds. These chemicals are concentrated in fruits of pumpkin; therefore fruit of pumpkin has shown more pronounced hypoglycemic/antihyperglycemic activity. However, protein possessing hypoglycemic activity was not from ungerminated pumpkin seed [42]. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide isolated from pumpkin containing 8.48% sugar was lower than that from pumpkin containing 4.29% sugar [43].

Antifungal proteins, such as α- and β-moschins (MW: 12 kDa), MAP28 (MW: 28 kDa), MAP2 (MW: 2249D), MAP4 (MW: 4650D), MAP11 (MW: 11696D) and peptide (MW: 8 kDa) are documented [44, 45, 46, 47].

Some technologies affected the function of pumpkin and pumpkin extracts. The major process for recovering pumpkin bioactive materials are summarized in Fig. 1. In order to gain higher yield of pectin from pumpkin pulps, enzymic extraction was adopted and worth being commended [48, 49]. However, The pumpkin pectin obtained by enzymic means did not form gels [50] and previous chemical modification is unsuccessful to improve this pectin preparation's gelling properties [51]. Further work need to continue toward two objectives: (1) search of righter enzymes for preparation of pectin samples; (2) development of methods for chemical modification of pumpkin pectin preparations with a view to improving their gelling properties. Because the lower temperature in the SFE avoids thermal degradation and the low water content limits hydrolitic processes, the application of supercritical fluid (SF), particularly SC-CO2, not introducing organic residues is a good method for extraction of oils from food and vegetables [52]. SC-CO2 extraction was reported to be an effective method for extraction of pumpkin oils. It is helpful to keep the pharmacological activities of pumpkin oils [53].

Germination and fermentation were important methods to improve the use of pumpkin. Fermentation significantly (P ;< ;0.05) increased crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility meanwhile decreased polyphenol and phytic acid contents of the seeds and improved the funcational properties of pumpkin products [54, 55, 56, 57]. It was reported that the nutritional quality of fluted pumpkin seeds improved following a 5-days fermentation period. Germination can vary the amino acid and carbohydrate constitutes and hence reduce blood glucose [42, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62]. However, Addition of flour from germinated pumpkin seeds to wheat flour had a detrimental effect on loaf volume, bread color and texture [63]. In addition, Shishigatani pumpkin possessed bio-antimutagenicity in the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, but common pumpkin did not [64]. Boiled pumpkin juice significantly suppressed the incidence of aberrant cells while fresh pumpkin juice enhanced it [65].

Pharmacological Properties of Pumpkin

Antidiabetic Activity

Pumpkin is most widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic effect and the fruit pulp and seeds of this plant have shown hypoglycemic activity in normal animals and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and rabbits.

Both common and sugar-removed pumpkin powder showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in plasma insulin and protected the diabetic nephropathy [66, 67, 68]. Reduction on blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride was observed in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits applied with pumpkin powder [69]. Hypoglycemic activity of water-extracted pumpkin polysaccharides was demonstrated and excelled glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (P ;< ;0.01) [70, 71, 72, 73, 74]. Antihyperglycemic activity of water-extracted pumpkin polysaccharides was observed in normal rats [40]. Crude polysaccharide from pumpkin fruit was reported to reduce branched chain amino acid and have better effect on normal rats than on alloxan-induced diabetic rats [75]. We report that protein-bound polysaccharide can obviously increase the levels of serum insulin, reduce the blood glucose levels and improve tolerance of glucose. The hypoglycemic effect of big dose protein-bound polysaccharide group (1000 mg/kg body weight) excelled that of small dose protein-bound polysaccharide group (500 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide group [76]. Eighteen amino acids were identified to be components of the protein-bound polysaccharide but the relationship between the contents of amino acids and hypoglycemic activity of pumpkin protein-bound polysaccharide is not clear [77]. We also found that the oil from ungerminated pumpkin seeds and proteins from germinated pumpkin seeds possessed hypoglycemic activity. The protein components with molecular weight over 60 kDa and below 3 kDa from pumpkin seeds after 4days germination obviously increased the blood insulin level. The ungerminated pumpkin seeds oil and germinated protein components with molecular weights 3–60 kDa improved blood glucose tolerance. However, proteins from ungerminated pumpkin seeds didn't possess the hypoglycemic activity [78]. The results on polyamine levels of 3–26 week old female mice during ageing suggest that polyamines may play important roles in the function of the pancreas, as a polyamine-rich food, pumpkin maybe shows hypoglycemic activity via action on pancreas [79]. It is necessary to investigate the protective effect of pumpkin and its extracts on pancreatic islets damage.

In a clinical trial, pumpkin juice consumed as to the diet produced a reduction in fasting blood glucose in diabetic subjects [80]. In another clinical study, pumpkin polysaccharide granule and oral-administration pumpkin polysaccharide liquid all caused significant reduction of post-prandial serum glucose and fasting glucose in NIDDM subjects [81, 82, 83]. A daily supplement containing pumpkin powder significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations in the 20 NIDDM diabetics (P ;< ;0.01) [84].

Further clinical work is required to be undertaken before those isolated, purified compounds can be marketed. However, in the developing countries, to cut down costs, intake of pumpkin fruit in form of vegetable should be encouraged that also shown to clinically effective. NIDDM patients should be encouraged to consume pumpkin as it can reduce the blood sugar, but choice of which kind of pumpkin should be kept in mind. Safety is assured because pumpkin has been consumed in diet for centuries. However, necessary technologies are advocated to reduce antinutritional materials.

Antibacterial activity.

There were reports on broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of pumpkin extracts. Pumpkin oil inhibits Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus at the concentration of 2.0% (v/v) [85]. A peptide (MW: 8 kDa) from pumpkin seeds was proved to inhibit B. cinerea, F. oxysporum and M. arachidicola at a dose of 375 ug and to exerted an inhibitory effect on cell-free translation with an IC50 of 1.2 uM [47]. The purified α-moschin and β-moschin, two proteins with a molecular mass of 12 kDa from fresh brown pumpkin seeds, displayed translation-inhibiting activity with IC50 of 17 uM and 300 nM, respectively [44]. A significant inhibitory effect of a purified protein (MW28000) against the fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum was exerted in an agar-disc plate at a concentration greater than 2 mM. It was shown that the MW28000 possessed a synergistic effect with nikkomycin, a chitin synthase inhibitor, for the growth inhibition of Candida albicans [45]. Three pumpkin seed basic proteins, MAP2 (MW: 2249D), MAP4 (MW: 4650D), MAP11 (MW: 11696D), inhibit the growth of yeast cells, with MAP11696 being the most effective inhibitor. However, MAP2 and MAP4 did not inhibit the growth of the Gram negative bacterium E. coli. [46]. Phloem exudate from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbitaceae) possess antifungal activities via inhibition of pathogenic fungal proteases [86].

It is of great importance that those living in developing countries be encouraged to consume pumpkin as it protects against organisms that cause diseases prevalent in these areas.

Hypocholesterolemic and Anti-Oxidant Potential

Several experimental studies carried out in normal as well as diabetic animals have shown hypo-cholesterolemic effect by pumpkin.

Reduction on serum total cholesterol and triglyceride was observed in alloxan-induce diabetic rabbits applied with pumpkin powder [69]. Hypolipidemic activities were observed after administrating pumpkin polysaccharides in normal and diabetic mice [87]. Administration of pumpkin-seed oil was reported to succeed in modulating most of the altered parameters affected during arthritis, especially at the chronic phase [88]. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with felodipine or captopril monotherapy or combined with pumpkin seed oil produced improvement in the measured free radical scavengers in the heart and kidney [89]. Among males who currently smoked and drank alcohol, the intake frequency of carrot or pumpkin was significantly lower for those with high HbA1c than for the others, although no significant differences of serum carotenoid levels were observed [90]. The serous and hepatic activities of SOD, GSH-Px in mice of pumpkin extracts administration group were significantly higher than that of Pb group (P ;< ;0.01), but the concentrations of MDA in mice of pumpkin extracts administration group were significantly lower than that of Pb group (P ;< ;0.01) [91]. It was found that pumpkin polysaccharide could increase the SOD and GSH-Px activity and reduce the MDA content in tumor-mice serum (P ;< ;0.05) [92]. It was reported that pumpkin-seed oil was effective against hypercholesterolemia [93].

Anticancer Activity

Several preliminary studies (in vitro as well as in vivo) with crude pumpkin extract and its various purified fraction–including proteins and polysaccharide–have shown anticancer activity against melanmoa, ehrlich ascites and leukaemia. Interestedly, boiled pumpkin juice significantly suppressed the incidence of aberrant cells while fresh pumpkin juice enhanced it [65].

Moschatin, a rRNA N-glycosidase from pumpkin seeds potently blocked the protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.26 nM [94]. The inhibition rate of pumpkin polysaccharide for mice S-180 and Ehrlich ascites tumor cell were 37.3 and 33.3% respectively [92]. It was reported that pumpkin extracts markedly reduced tumor weight in S-180-bearing mice [95]. MAP2 and MAP4 were reported to have effect on the growth of leukaemia K-562 cells but to have little effect at concentrations up to 6 mM [46]. Proteins from pumpkin seeds were reported to inhibit melanoma proliferation [96]. Enzyme preparations of pumpkin was found to possess antitumoric potentiality [97].

Literature at present points to the potential usefulness of pumpkin in cancer treatment. However, it would be interesting to conduct an epidemiological survey with regard to incidence of malignancies among population that consumes pumpkin as vegetable.

Immunomodulatory Activity

In investigations about the antitumor activity of pumpkin polysaccharide, increase of cell immune function was observed (P ;< ;0.05) [92]. Pumpkin extracts could promoted of splenic lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity and enhance the number of CD4+, CD8+ and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P ;< ;0.05) [94].

Antimutagenic Activity

Pumpkin juice was reported to have antimutagenic activity. Interestedly, when fruit and vegetable juices were heated, pumpkin juice was remarkably heat stable while a considerable reduction of antimutagenic potencies was seen with many fruits and vegetables such as apples, apricots, kiwis, pineapples and beets [98]. Shishigatani pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) possessed bio-antimutagenicity in the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, but common pumpkin did not [64]. In addition, pumpkin and bitter leaves in Nigeria was reported to possess potential anti-mutagenic activities [99], it is necessary to prove the results in other places via more investigation.

Anthelmintic Study

Pumpkin seed was found to be a vermifuge and was eaten fresh or roasted for the relief of abdominal cramps and distension due to intestinal worms. (http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Cucurbita+moschata). The effect of water extracts of pumpkin seeds in the treatment of puppies experimentally infected with heterophyiasis could obtain promising results and combined extracts of areca nut and pumpkin seeds gave an excellent result than when given either extract alone [100]. An antihelminthic effect was reported at the minimum inhibitory concentration of 23 g of pumpkin seed in 100 ml of distilled water in preclinical studies [101].

Anti-Bladderstone

Supplementation of pumpkin seeds snack gave a higher level of inhibitor of crystal formation or aggregation which will subsequently reduce the risk of bladder stone disease in Thailand [102]. Pumpkin seeds or orthophosphate supplementation 60 mg/kg. (body wt) per day could reduce the incidence of bladderstone, the longer the supplementation period of pumpkin seeds, the better were the results [103]. It was reported that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance and reduce the urethral pressure [104].

Miscellaneous Effects

A few preliminary studies have shown various other pharmacological properties of the plant.

Pretreatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with pumpkin seed oil for 4 weeks then i.v. administration of felodipine or captopril produced a significant beneficial hypotensive action [89]. In a clinical trial, a daily supplement of 30 g/person pumpkin powder produced hypotensive activities in 20 normal people and 20 NIDDM diabetics [84].

The administration of pumpkin seeds proteins after CCl4 intoxication resulted in significantly reduced activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hence this protein administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein malnutrition [105].

Pumpkin showed urokinase inhibitory activity over 80%. There were various urokinase inhibitory activities with different ways of processing and pumpkin with water showed highest urokinase inhibitory activity [106].

Analgesia and antiinflammation activities were observed with head of pumpkin stem [107]. Proteins from pumpkin seeds could inhibit trypsin and activated Hageman factor, a serine protease involved in blood coagulation [108, 109]. A dietetic formula made of pumpkin, rice, chicken and vegetable oils was found to beneficial for children with diarrhea [110]. It was found that that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of fluted pumpkin leaf have hepatoprotective properties. Furthermore, the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidative activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of fluted pumpkin leaves [111].

Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research

Over the years scientists have researched many pharmacological actions and potential uses of pumpkin and its extracts. Clearly, there is still a lot to learn about the health effects of this plant. Further studies are required to gain a better understanding of the role of pumpkin extracts in protecting against disease.

Concentrated fruit or seed extracts and purified chemical can be found in various herbal preparations (capsules and liquid). Pumpkin preparations are becoming more widely available in the China as well as rest of the world and are employed by practitioners of natural health for treatment of diabetes. Role of pumpkin in diabetes is of paramount importance as this plant serves various purposes in these patients–reducing blood sugar, increasing the insulin level and decreasing branched chain amino acid. Most importantly it is cheap and easily available in developing countries. However, standardization of pumpkin and its antidiabetic component followed by a controlled clinical trial is needed.

Preliminary studies (in vitro as well as in vivo) of crude pumpkin extract against several cancers suggests that it have anticancer potential, however, presently further studies are needed.

Pumpkin extracts were reported to possess the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In developing countries, both pumpkin and AIDS are ubiquitous, it could bring enormous hope to the suffering and it can be advocated as a dietary aid.

Polysaccharides including protein-bound polysaccharides are the bioactive materials of pumpkin. However, the structure property and relation between the structure and the function are not clear. The relationship between the contents of amino acids and hypoglycemic activity of protein-bound polysaccharides need further work to prove.

Because of reduction of antinutrients, technologies such as germination and fermentation are worth advocating. New bioactivity of germinated pumpkin seeds would be paid more attention. As special effective catalyst, enzyme is helpful to extract the bioactive substances from plant. Enzyme-assisted extraction of pumpkin oil or protein is good for research. The ultrasound treatment can significantly affect two types of physical phenomena: diffusion through the cell walls and washing out (rinsing) the cell contents once the walls are broken, involved in the extraction mechanism. To contribute toward industrialized utilization of pumpkin products, it is necessary to study ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive materials in pumpkin.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support received in the form of a research grant (Project No: 30571298) from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

References

  1. 1.
    Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS (2001) Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA 286: 208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marcus DM, Grollman AP (2002) Botanical medicines: the need for new regulations. N Engl J Med 347: 2073–2076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Smet PA (2002) Herbal remedies. N Engl J Med 347: 2046–2056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grover JK, Yadav SP (2004) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 93: 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whitaker TW, Davis GN (1962) Cucurbits. New York: Interscience Publ. Inc.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robinson RW, Decker-Walters DS (1997) Cucurbits. New York: CAB International.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor MJ, Brant J (2002) Trends in world cucurbit production, 1991 to 2001. In: Maynard DN (ed), Cucurbitaceae. Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press, pp 373–379.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paris HS (1989) Cucurbitapepo (Cucurbitaceae). Econ Bot 43: 423–443.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Decker-Walters DS, Walters TW (2000) Squash. In: Kipel KF, Ornelas KC (eds), The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 335–351.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brent Loy J (2004) Morpho-Physiological Aspects of Productivity and Quality in Squash and Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.). Crit Rev Plant Sci 23(4): 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jacks TJ, Hensarling TP, Yatsu LY (1972) Cucurbit seeds: I. Characterizations and Uses of oils and Proteins. A Rev Econ Bot 26: 135–141.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lazos ES (1986) Nutritional, fatty acid, and oil characteristics of pumpkin and melon seeds. J Food Sci 4: 83–87.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winkler J (2000) The origin and breeding of hull-less seeded Styrian oil-pumpkin varieties in Austria. Cucurbit Genetics Coop Rpt 23: 101–104.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robinson RG (1975) Amino acid composition of sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Agron J 61: 541–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Teppner H (2000) Cucurbita pepo-History and thin coated seeds. Cucurbit Genetic Coop Rpt 23: 126–127.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dreher ML, Weber CW, Bemis WP, Berry JW (1980) Cucurbit seed coat composition. J Agr Food Chem 28: 364–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seo JS, Burri BJ, Quan ZJ, Neidlinger TR (2005) Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin. J Chromatogr A 1073(1–2): 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU (2000) Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.). Food Chemistry 70(2): 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Popovic M (1971). On growing squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) in Yugoslavia. Savremena Poljoprivreda 11–12: 59–71.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jia W, Gao W, Tang L (2003) Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China. Phytother Res 17(10): 1127–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adolfo AC, Michael H (2005) Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 99: 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buchbauer G, Boucek B, Nikiforov A (1998) On the aroma of Austrian pumpkin seed oil: correlation of analytical data with olfactoric characteristics. Ernahrung/Nutrition 22(6): 246–249.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuhlmann H, Koetter U, Theurer C (1999) Sterol contents in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. citrullinina var. styriaca) depending on genotype and location. Acta Horticulturae 492: 175–178.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matsui T, Guth H, Grosch W (1998) A comparative study of potent odorants in peanut, hazelnut, and pumpkin seed oils on the basis of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry of headspace samples (GCOH). Lipid–Fett 100(2): 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Appendino G, Jakupovic J, Belloro E, Marchesini A (1999) Multiflorane triterpenoid esters from pumpkin. An unexpected extrafolic source of PABA. Phytochemistry 51: 1021–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Murkovic M, Mulleder U, Neunteufl H (2002) Carotenoid Content in Different Varieties of Pumpkins. J Food Composition Anal 15: 633–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gonzalez E, Montenegro MA, Nazareno MA, Lopez de Mishima BA (2001) Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata). Arch Latinoam Nutr 51(4): 395–399.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1999) Latin American food sources of carotenoids. Arch Latinoam Nutr 49(3 Suppl 1): 74S–84S.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arima HK, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1990) Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of a squash and a pumpkin from northeastern Brazil. Arch Latinoam Nutr 40(2): 284–292.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang H (2003) Determination of γ-amino-butyric acid and amino acids in pumpkin. Food Res Dev 24(3): 108–109.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU (2000) Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin(Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.). Food Chem 70: 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Achinewhu SC, Isichei MO (1990) The nutritional evaluation of fermented fluted pumpkin seeds (Telfairia occidentalis Hook). Discov Innov 2: 62–65.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nwokolo E, Sim JS (1987) Nutritional assessment of defatted oil meals of melon (Colocynthis citrullus) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) by chick assay. J Sci Food Agric 38: 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koike K, Li W, Liu L, Hata E, Nikaido T (2005) New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Chem Pharm Bull 53(2): 225–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bang MH, Han JT, Kim HY, Park YD, Park CH, Lee KR, Baek NI (2002) 13-Hydroxy-9Z, 11E, 15E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata. Arch Pharm Res 25(4): 438–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xiang D, Han FY, Liang P (2004) Extraction of pumpkin polysaccharide with sodium hydroxide. Sci Technol Food Ind 11: 120–122.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li QH, Fu CL (2005) Application of response surface methodology for extraction optimization of germinant pumpkin seeds protein. Food Chem 92: 701–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jun HI, Lee CH, Song GS, Kim YS (2006) Characterization of the pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin peel. Food Sci Tech 39(5): 554–561.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang YJ, Yao HY (2002) Revealing the effective ingredient in pumpkin for reducing blood sugar. J Chin Cereals and Oils Assoc 17(4): 59–62.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang YJ, Yao HY (2002) Composition analysis of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. J Wuxi Univ Light Ind 21(2): 173–175.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xiong XM (2000) Study on extraction and separation of effective composition of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. Chin Tradit Patent Med 22(8): 563–565.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cai TY, Li QH, Yan H, Li N (2003) Study on the hypoglycemic action of pumpkin seed protein. J Chin Inst Food Sci Technol 3(1): 7–11.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang Y, Yao H (2002) Study on effect of hypoglycemia of different type pumpkin. J Chin Food Sci 23: 118–120.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ng TB, Parkash A, Tso WW (2002) Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine–glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds. Protein Expr Purif 26: 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cheong NE, Choi YO, Kim WY, Bae IS, Cho MJ, Hwang I, Kim JW, Lee SY (1997) Purification and characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from pumpkin leaves. Mol Cells 7(2): 214–219.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vassiliou AG, Neumann GM, Condron R, Polya GM (1998) Purification and mass spectrometry-assisted sequencing of basic antifungal proteins from seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Plant Sci 134: 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang HX, Ng TB (2003) Isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds. Peptides 24: 969–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matora AV, Korshunova VE, Shkodina OG, Zhemerichkin DA, Ptitchkina NM, Morris ER (1995) The application of bacterial enzymes for extraction of pectin from pumpkin and sugar beet. Food Hydrocolloids 9(1): 43–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhemerichkin DA, Ptitchkina NM (1995) The composition and properties of pumpkin and sugar beet pectins. Food Hydrocolloids 9(2): 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shkodina OG, Zeltser OA, Selivanov NY, Ignatov VV (1998) Enzymic extraction of pectin preparations from pumpkin. Food Hydrocolloids 12(3): 313–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Evageliou V, Ptitchkina NM, Morris ER (2005) Solution viscosity and structural modification of pumpkin biopectin. Food Hydrocolloids 19(6): 1032–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hurren D (1999) Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2. Filtr 36: 25–27.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yu WL, Zhao YP, Chen JJ, Shu B (2004) Comparison of two kinds of pumpkin seed oils obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106(6): 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Giami SY(2004) Effect of fermentation on the seed proteins, nitrogenous constituents, antinutrients and nutritional quality of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook). Food Chem 88: 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Achinewhu SC (1986) Some biochemical and nutritional changes during the fermentation of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Plant Foods for Human Nutr 36: 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Onimawo IA, Nmerole EC, Idoko PI, Akubor PI (2003) Effects of fermentation on nutrient content and some functional properties of pumpkin seed (Telfair occidentalis). Plant Foods for Human Nutr 58: 1–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Giami SY, Bekebain DA (1992) Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and processed full-fat fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed flour. J Sci Food Agri 59(3): 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Odoemena CS (1991) Effect of sprouting on carbohydrate content of fluted pumpkin seed. Food Chem 41(1): 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mansour EH, Dworschak E, Lugasi A, Barna E, Gergely A (1993) Nutritive value of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Kakai 35) seed products. J Sci Food Agri 61(1): 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee GH, Lee BJ, Oh MJ (2001) Chemical compositions of pumpkin seed sprouts. Seoul, Korea: 11th World Congress of Food Science, pp 22–27.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Splittstoesser WE (1969) Arginine metabolism by pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita moschata): separation of plant extracts by ion exchange resins. Plant Cell Physio 1: 87–94.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ikuko H, Keishiro W, Hiroshi M (1976) Pumpkin seed globulin II, Alterations during germination. Plant Cell Physiol 17: 815–823.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Giami SY, Barber LI (2004) Utilization of protein concentrates from ungerminated and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds in cookie formulations. J Sci Food Agric 84: 1901–1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nakamura Y, Suganuma E, Kuyama N, Sato K, Ohtsuki K (1998) Comparative bio-antimutagenicity of common vegetables and traditional vegetables in Kyoto. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(6): 1161–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ito Y, Maeda S, Sugiyama T (1986) Suppression of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells by vegetable juices. Mutat Res 172(1): 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ju LY, Chang D (2001) Hypoglycemic effect of pumpkin powder. J Harbin Med 21(1): 5–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhang XP, Bai XM (2004) Effect of compound pumpkin powder on diabetic mice. Chin J Mod Appl Pharmacol 21(4): 278–280.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen JG (2005) Effects of sugar-removed pumpkin zymptic powders in preventing and treating the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Chin J Clin Rehabil 9: 94–95.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang ZJ (1998) Effects of superfine pumpkin powder on alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus rabbits. J Chin Cereals and Oils Assoc 13(3): 52–56.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhang YJ (2004) Study on the hypoglycemic effects and extraction and analysis of pumpkin polysaccharide. J China Jiliang Univ 15(3): 0238–0241.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang YJ (2001) Study on extraction and separation of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. Food Sci Techno 5: 15–16, 18.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zuo YM (2001) Isolation, analysis and hypoglycemic activity of pumpkin polysaccharide 22(12): 56–58.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Peng H (2002) Isolation and hypoglycemic effect of pumpkin polysaccharide. Chinese J Food Sci 23(8): 260–262.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Xiong XM (1998) Hypoglycemic activity of pumpkin polysaccharide in allaxan diabetic rats. J Jiangxi Coll Tradit Chin Med 10(4): 174–175.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kong QS, Jiang Y (2002) Isolation and purification of polysaccharide from the pumpkin and studies of its decrease BACC activity. J Jining Med Coll 35(1): 29–31.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Li QH, Fu CL, Rui YK, Hu GH, Cai TY (2005) Effects of protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from pumpkin on insulin in diabetic rats. Plant Foods Human Nutr 60: 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fu CL, Tian HJ, Cai TY, Liu Y, Li QH. (In press) Some properties of an acidic protein-bound polysaccharide from the fruit of pumpkin. Food Chem.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Li QH, Tian Z, Cai TY (2001) Study on the hypoglycemic action of pumpkin extract in diabetic rat. Acta Nutrmenta Sin 25(1): 34–36.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nishimura K, Shiina R, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (2006) Decrease in polyamines with ageing and their ingestion from food and drink. J Biochem 139(1): 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yan MM (1997) Hypoglycemic effect of ke-kang pumpkin juice on diabetes II. Chin Public Health 13(10): 623.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lv WF (2004) A study on the extraction and purification of pumpkin polysaccharide and the hypoglyce effect of its compound oral liquid. Prog Pharm Sci 28(11): 515–518.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shi Y (2003) Effect of pumpkin polysaccharide granules on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Cent South Pharm 1(5): 275–277.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xiong XM (2001) Evaluation on clinical effects of pumpkin polysaccharide grannules for diabetes II. Chin Tradit Patent Med 23(7): 495–497.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen Z, Wang X, Jie Y, Huang C, Zhang G (1994) Study on hypoglycemia and hypotension function of pumpkin powder on human. Jiangxi Chin Med 25: 50.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (1999) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 86(6): 985–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    MacGibbon DB, Mann JD (1986) Inhibition of animal and pathogenic fungal proteases by phloem exudate from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbitaceae). J Sci Food Agric 37(6): 515–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kong QS (2000) Studies on extraction and hypolipidemic activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin. Chin J Biochem Pharmaceu 21(3): 7–11.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fahim AT, Abd-el Fattah AA, Agha AM, Gad MZ (1995) Effect of pumpkin-seed oil on the level of free radical scavengers induced during adjuvant-arthritis in rats. Pharmacol Res 31(1): 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zuhair HA, Abd El-Fattah AA, El-Sayed MI (2000) Pumpkin-seed oil modulates the effect of felodipine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol Res 41(5): 555–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Suzuki K, Ito Y, Otani M, Suzuki S, Aoki K (2000) A study on serum carotenoid levels of people with hyperglycemia who was screened among residents living in a rural area of Hokkaido, Japan. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 55(2): 481–488.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dang C (2004) Effect of pumpkin distillable subject on lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidative enzyme induced by Plumbum in mouse. Chin J Clin Rehabil 8: 4378–4379.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Xu GH, et al (2000) A study of the possible antitumour effect and immunom petence of pumpkin polysaccharide. J Wuhan Prof Med Coll 28(4): 1–4.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Al-Zuhair H, Abd el-Fattah AA, Abd el Latif HA (1997) Efficacy of simvastatin and pumpkin-seed oil in the management of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacol Res 35(5): 403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Xia HC, Li F, Li Z, Zhang ZC (2003) Purification and characterization of Moschatin, a novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and preparation of its immunotoxin against human melanoma cells. Cell Res 13(5): 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hong LH, et al (2005) Effect of pumpkin extracts on tumor growth inhibition in S180-bearing mice. Pract Prev Med 12(4): 745–747.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xie JM, et al (2004) Induced polarization effect of pumpkin protein on B16 cell. Fujian Med Univ Acta 38(4): 394–395.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Omura H, Tmita Y, Murakami H, Nakamura Y (1974) Antitumoric potentiality of enzyme preparations of pumpkin ascorbate oxidase and shiitake mushroom polyphenol oxidase. J Fac Agric, Kyushu Univ 3: 191–200.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Edenharder R, Kurz P, John K, Burgard S, Seeger K (1994) In vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline. Food Chem Toxicol 32(5): 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Akerele JO (2001) Potential anti-mutagenic activities of pumpkin and bitter leaves in Benin City, Nigeria. 8th International Conference on Environmental Mutagens, Granship, Shizuoka (Japan), pp 21–26.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mahmoud LH, Basiouny SO, Dawoud HA (2002) Treatment of experimental heterophyiasis with two plant extracts, areca nut and pumpkin seed. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 32(2): 501–506, 1 p following 506.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Diaz Obregon D, Lloja Lozano L, Carbajal Zuniga V (2004) Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 24(4): 323–327.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Suphiphat V, Morjaroen N, Pukboonme I, Ngunboonsri P, Lowhnoo T, Dhanamitta S (1993) The effect of pumpkin seeds snack on inhibitors and promoters of urolithiasis in Thai adolescents. J Med Assoc Thai 76(9): 487–493.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Suphakarn VS, Yarnnon C, Ngunboonsri P (1987) The effect of pumpkin seeds on oxalcrystalluria and urinary compositions of children in hyperendemic area. Am J Clin Nutr 45(1): 115–121.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhang X, Ouyang JZ, Zhang YS, Tayalla B, Zhou XC, Zhou SW (1994) Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study. J Tongji Med Univ 14(4): 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nkosi CZ, Opoku AR, Terblanche SE (2005) Effect of Pumpkin Seed (Cucurbita pepo)Protein Isolate on The Activity Levels of Certain Plasma Enzymes in CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Low-Protein Fed Rats. Phytother Res 19: 341–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fan YJ, Ohara A, Matsuhisa T (2004) Test for urokinase-type plasminogen activator inhibitor of edible plants in vitro. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 38(4): 252–256.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang P, et al (1999) Experimental study on pharmacological actions about analgesia, antiinflammation of Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Shizhen Med Mteria Med Res 10(8): 567.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Krishnamoorthi R, Gong YX, Richardson M (1990) A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. FEBS Lett 273(1–2): 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dannenhoffer JM, Suhr RC, Thompson GA (2001) Phloem-specific expression of the pumpkin fruit trypsin inhibitor. Planta 212(2): 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hernandez Ramirez BD; Guerra Modernell MJ (1997) Development and evaluation of a dietetic formula made of pumpkin, rice, chicken and vegetable oils for children with diarrhea. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 47(1): 57–61.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oboh G (2005) Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress. J Med Food 8(4): 560–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and Nutrition EngineeringChina Agriculture UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations