Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 70–77 | Cite as

A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Utilization Technologies of Pumpkin

Article

Abstract.

Dietary plants and herbal preparations have been traditionally used as medicine in developing countries and obtained a resurgence of use in the United States and Europe. Research carried out in last few decades has validated several such claims of use of traditional medicine plants. Popularity of pumpkin in various systems of traditional medicine for several ailments (antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antitumor, immunomodulation, antibacterial, antihypercholesterolemia, intestinal antiparasitia, antiinflammation, antalgic) focused the investigators’ attention on this plant. Considerable evidence from several epidemiological studies concerning bioactivities leads have stimulated a number of animal model, cell culture studies and clinical trials designed to test this pharmacological actions. In addition, it was found that technologies such as germination and fermentation could reduce antinutritional materials and affect the pharmacological activities of pumpkin. This review will focus on the main medicinal properties and technologies of pumpkin, and point out areas for future research to further elucidate mechanisms whereby this compound may reduce disease risk.

Key words:

Pharmacological activities Pumpkin Review Technologies Traditional medicine 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support received in the form of a research grant (Project No: 30571298) from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

References

  1. 1.
    Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan CS (2001) Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA 286: 208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marcus DM, Grollman AP (2002) Botanical medicines: the need for new regulations. N Engl J Med 347: 2073–2076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Smet PA (2002) Herbal remedies. N Engl J Med 347: 2046–2056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grover JK, Yadav SP (2004) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 93: 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whitaker TW, Davis GN (1962) Cucurbits. New York: Interscience Publ. Inc.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robinson RW, Decker-Walters DS (1997) Cucurbits. New York: CAB International.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taylor MJ, Brant J (2002) Trends in world cucurbit production, 1991 to 2001. In: Maynard DN (ed), Cucurbitaceae. Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press, pp 373–379.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paris HS (1989) Cucurbitapepo (Cucurbitaceae). Econ Bot 43: 423–443.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Decker-Walters DS, Walters TW (2000) Squash. In: Kipel KF, Ornelas KC (eds), The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 335–351.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brent Loy J (2004) Morpho-Physiological Aspects of Productivity and Quality in Squash and Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.). Crit Rev Plant Sci 23(4): 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jacks TJ, Hensarling TP, Yatsu LY (1972) Cucurbit seeds: I. Characterizations and Uses of oils and Proteins. A Rev Econ Bot 26: 135–141.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lazos ES (1986) Nutritional, fatty acid, and oil characteristics of pumpkin and melon seeds. J Food Sci 4: 83–87.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winkler J (2000) The origin and breeding of hull-less seeded Styrian oil-pumpkin varieties in Austria. Cucurbit Genetics Coop Rpt 23: 101–104.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robinson RG (1975) Amino acid composition of sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Agron J 61: 541–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Teppner H (2000) Cucurbita pepo-History and thin coated seeds. Cucurbit Genetic Coop Rpt 23: 126–127.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dreher ML, Weber CW, Bemis WP, Berry JW (1980) Cucurbit seed coat composition. J Agr Food Chem 28: 364–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seo JS, Burri BJ, Quan ZJ, Neidlinger TR (2005) Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin. J Chromatogr A 1073(1–2): 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU (2000) Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.). Food Chemistry 70(2): 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Popovic M (1971). On growing squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) in Yugoslavia. Savremena Poljoprivreda 11–12: 59–71.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jia W, Gao W, Tang L (2003) Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China. Phytother Res 17(10): 1127–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adolfo AC, Michael H (2005) Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 99: 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buchbauer G, Boucek B, Nikiforov A (1998) On the aroma of Austrian pumpkin seed oil: correlation of analytical data with olfactoric characteristics. Ernahrung/Nutrition 22(6): 246–249.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuhlmann H, Koetter U, Theurer C (1999) Sterol contents in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. citrullinina var. styriaca) depending on genotype and location. Acta Horticulturae 492: 175–178.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matsui T, Guth H, Grosch W (1998) A comparative study of potent odorants in peanut, hazelnut, and pumpkin seed oils on the basis of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry of headspace samples (GCOH). Lipid–Fett 100(2): 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Appendino G, Jakupovic J, Belloro E, Marchesini A (1999) Multiflorane triterpenoid esters from pumpkin. An unexpected extrafolic source of PABA. Phytochemistry 51: 1021–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Murkovic M, Mulleder U, Neunteufl H (2002) Carotenoid Content in Different Varieties of Pumpkins. J Food Composition Anal 15: 633–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gonzalez E, Montenegro MA, Nazareno MA, Lopez de Mishima BA (2001) Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata). Arch Latinoam Nutr 51(4): 395–399.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1999) Latin American food sources of carotenoids. Arch Latinoam Nutr 49(3 Suppl 1): 74S–84S.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arima HK, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1990) Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of a squash and a pumpkin from northeastern Brazil. Arch Latinoam Nutr 40(2): 284–292.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang H (2003) Determination of γ-amino-butyric acid and amino acids in pumpkin. Food Res Dev 24(3): 108–109.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU (2000) Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin(Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.). Food Chem 70: 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Achinewhu SC, Isichei MO (1990) The nutritional evaluation of fermented fluted pumpkin seeds (Telfairia occidentalis Hook). Discov Innov 2: 62–65.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nwokolo E, Sim JS (1987) Nutritional assessment of defatted oil meals of melon (Colocynthis citrullus) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) by chick assay. J Sci Food Agric 38: 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koike K, Li W, Liu L, Hata E, Nikaido T (2005) New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Chem Pharm Bull 53(2): 225–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bang MH, Han JT, Kim HY, Park YD, Park CH, Lee KR, Baek NI (2002) 13-Hydroxy-9Z, 11E, 15E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of Cucurbita moschata. Arch Pharm Res 25(4): 438–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xiang D, Han FY, Liang P (2004) Extraction of pumpkin polysaccharide with sodium hydroxide. Sci Technol Food Ind 11: 120–122.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li QH, Fu CL (2005) Application of response surface methodology for extraction optimization of germinant pumpkin seeds protein. Food Chem 92: 701–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jun HI, Lee CH, Song GS, Kim YS (2006) Characterization of the pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin peel. Food Sci Tech 39(5): 554–561.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang YJ, Yao HY (2002) Revealing the effective ingredient in pumpkin for reducing blood sugar. J Chin Cereals and Oils Assoc 17(4): 59–62.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang YJ, Yao HY (2002) Composition analysis of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. J Wuxi Univ Light Ind 21(2): 173–175.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xiong XM (2000) Study on extraction and separation of effective composition of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. Chin Tradit Patent Med 22(8): 563–565.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cai TY, Li QH, Yan H, Li N (2003) Study on the hypoglycemic action of pumpkin seed protein. J Chin Inst Food Sci Technol 3(1): 7–11.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhang Y, Yao H (2002) Study on effect of hypoglycemia of different type pumpkin. J Chin Food Sci 23: 118–120.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ng TB, Parkash A, Tso WW (2002) Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine–glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds. Protein Expr Purif 26: 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cheong NE, Choi YO, Kim WY, Bae IS, Cho MJ, Hwang I, Kim JW, Lee SY (1997) Purification and characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from pumpkin leaves. Mol Cells 7(2): 214–219.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vassiliou AG, Neumann GM, Condron R, Polya GM (1998) Purification and mass spectrometry-assisted sequencing of basic antifungal proteins from seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Plant Sci 134: 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang HX, Ng TB (2003) Isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds. Peptides 24: 969–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Matora AV, Korshunova VE, Shkodina OG, Zhemerichkin DA, Ptitchkina NM, Morris ER (1995) The application of bacterial enzymes for extraction of pectin from pumpkin and sugar beet. Food Hydrocolloids 9(1): 43–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhemerichkin DA, Ptitchkina NM (1995) The composition and properties of pumpkin and sugar beet pectins. Food Hydrocolloids 9(2): 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shkodina OG, Zeltser OA, Selivanov NY, Ignatov VV (1998) Enzymic extraction of pectin preparations from pumpkin. Food Hydrocolloids 12(3): 313–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Evageliou V, Ptitchkina NM, Morris ER (2005) Solution viscosity and structural modification of pumpkin biopectin. Food Hydrocolloids 19(6): 1032–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hurren D (1999) Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2. Filtr 36: 25–27.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yu WL, Zhao YP, Chen JJ, Shu B (2004) Comparison of two kinds of pumpkin seed oils obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106(6): 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Giami SY(2004) Effect of fermentation on the seed proteins, nitrogenous constituents, antinutrients and nutritional quality of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook). Food Chem 88: 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Achinewhu SC (1986) Some biochemical and nutritional changes during the fermentation of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Plant Foods for Human Nutr 36: 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Onimawo IA, Nmerole EC, Idoko PI, Akubor PI (2003) Effects of fermentation on nutrient content and some functional properties of pumpkin seed (Telfair occidentalis). Plant Foods for Human Nutr 58: 1–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Giami SY, Bekebain DA (1992) Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and processed full-fat fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed flour. J Sci Food Agri 59(3): 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Odoemena CS (1991) Effect of sprouting on carbohydrate content of fluted pumpkin seed. Food Chem 41(1): 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mansour EH, Dworschak E, Lugasi A, Barna E, Gergely A (1993) Nutritive value of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Kakai 35) seed products. J Sci Food Agri 61(1): 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee GH, Lee BJ, Oh MJ (2001) Chemical compositions of pumpkin seed sprouts. Seoul, Korea: 11th World Congress of Food Science, pp 22–27.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Splittstoesser WE (1969) Arginine metabolism by pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita moschata): separation of plant extracts by ion exchange resins. Plant Cell Physio 1: 87–94.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ikuko H, Keishiro W, Hiroshi M (1976) Pumpkin seed globulin II, Alterations during germination. Plant Cell Physiol 17: 815–823.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Giami SY, Barber LI (2004) Utilization of protein concentrates from ungerminated and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds in cookie formulations. J Sci Food Agric 84: 1901–1907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nakamura Y, Suganuma E, Kuyama N, Sato K, Ohtsuki K (1998) Comparative bio-antimutagenicity of common vegetables and traditional vegetables in Kyoto. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(6): 1161–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ito Y, Maeda S, Sugiyama T (1986) Suppression of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells by vegetable juices. Mutat Res 172(1): 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ju LY, Chang D (2001) Hypoglycemic effect of pumpkin powder. J Harbin Med 21(1): 5–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhang XP, Bai XM (2004) Effect of compound pumpkin powder on diabetic mice. Chin J Mod Appl Pharmacol 21(4): 278–280.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chen JG (2005) Effects of sugar-removed pumpkin zymptic powders in preventing and treating the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Chin J Clin Rehabil 9: 94–95.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang ZJ (1998) Effects of superfine pumpkin powder on alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus rabbits. J Chin Cereals and Oils Assoc 13(3): 52–56.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhang YJ (2004) Study on the hypoglycemic effects and extraction and analysis of pumpkin polysaccharide. J China Jiliang Univ 15(3): 0238–0241.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang YJ (2001) Study on extraction and separation of pumpkin polysaccharide and its glucatonic effect. Food Sci Techno 5: 15–16, 18.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zuo YM (2001) Isolation, analysis and hypoglycemic activity of pumpkin polysaccharide 22(12): 56–58.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Peng H (2002) Isolation and hypoglycemic effect of pumpkin polysaccharide. Chinese J Food Sci 23(8): 260–262.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Xiong XM (1998) Hypoglycemic activity of pumpkin polysaccharide in allaxan diabetic rats. J Jiangxi Coll Tradit Chin Med 10(4): 174–175.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kong QS, Jiang Y (2002) Isolation and purification of polysaccharide from the pumpkin and studies of its decrease BACC activity. J Jining Med Coll 35(1): 29–31.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Li QH, Fu CL, Rui YK, Hu GH, Cai TY (2005) Effects of protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from pumpkin on insulin in diabetic rats. Plant Foods Human Nutr 60: 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fu CL, Tian HJ, Cai TY, Liu Y, Li QH. (In press) Some properties of an acidic protein-bound polysaccharide from the fruit of pumpkin. Food Chem.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Li QH, Tian Z, Cai TY (2001) Study on the hypoglycemic action of pumpkin extract in diabetic rat. Acta Nutrmenta Sin 25(1): 34–36.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nishimura K, Shiina R, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (2006) Decrease in polyamines with ageing and their ingestion from food and drink. J Biochem 139(1): 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yan MM (1997) Hypoglycemic effect of ke-kang pumpkin juice on diabetes II. Chin Public Health 13(10): 623.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lv WF (2004) A study on the extraction and purification of pumpkin polysaccharide and the hypoglyce effect of its compound oral liquid. Prog Pharm Sci 28(11): 515–518.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shi Y (2003) Effect of pumpkin polysaccharide granules on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Cent South Pharm 1(5): 275–277.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xiong XM (2001) Evaluation on clinical effects of pumpkin polysaccharide grannules for diabetes II. Chin Tradit Patent Med 23(7): 495–497.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen Z, Wang X, Jie Y, Huang C, Zhang G (1994) Study on hypoglycemia and hypotension function of pumpkin powder on human. Jiangxi Chin Med 25: 50.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV (1999) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 86(6): 985–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    MacGibbon DB, Mann JD (1986) Inhibition of animal and pathogenic fungal proteases by phloem exudate from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbitaceae). J Sci Food Agric 37(6): 515–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kong QS (2000) Studies on extraction and hypolipidemic activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin. Chin J Biochem Pharmaceu 21(3): 7–11.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fahim AT, Abd-el Fattah AA, Agha AM, Gad MZ (1995) Effect of pumpkin-seed oil on the level of free radical scavengers induced during adjuvant-arthritis in rats. Pharmacol Res 31(1): 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zuhair HA, Abd El-Fattah AA, El-Sayed MI (2000) Pumpkin-seed oil modulates the effect of felodipine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol Res 41(5): 555–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Suzuki K, Ito Y, Otani M, Suzuki S, Aoki K (2000) A study on serum carotenoid levels of people with hyperglycemia who was screened among residents living in a rural area of Hokkaido, Japan. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 55(2): 481–488.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dang C (2004) Effect of pumpkin distillable subject on lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidative enzyme induced by Plumbum in mouse. Chin J Clin Rehabil 8: 4378–4379.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Xu GH, et al (2000) A study of the possible antitumour effect and immunom petence of pumpkin polysaccharide. J Wuhan Prof Med Coll 28(4): 1–4.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Al-Zuhair H, Abd el-Fattah AA, Abd el Latif HA (1997) Efficacy of simvastatin and pumpkin-seed oil in the management of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacol Res 35(5): 403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Xia HC, Li F, Li Z, Zhang ZC (2003) Purification and characterization of Moschatin, a novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and preparation of its immunotoxin against human melanoma cells. Cell Res 13(5): 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hong LH, et al (2005) Effect of pumpkin extracts on tumor growth inhibition in S180-bearing mice. Pract Prev Med 12(4): 745–747.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xie JM, et al (2004) Induced polarization effect of pumpkin protein on B16 cell. Fujian Med Univ Acta 38(4): 394–395.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Omura H, Tmita Y, Murakami H, Nakamura Y (1974) Antitumoric potentiality of enzyme preparations of pumpkin ascorbate oxidase and shiitake mushroom polyphenol oxidase. J Fac Agric, Kyushu Univ 3: 191–200.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Edenharder R, Kurz P, John K, Burgard S, Seeger K (1994) In vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline. Food Chem Toxicol 32(5): 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Akerele JO (2001) Potential anti-mutagenic activities of pumpkin and bitter leaves in Benin City, Nigeria. 8th International Conference on Environmental Mutagens, Granship, Shizuoka (Japan), pp 21–26.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mahmoud LH, Basiouny SO, Dawoud HA (2002) Treatment of experimental heterophyiasis with two plant extracts, areca nut and pumpkin seed. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 32(2): 501–506, 1 p following 506.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Diaz Obregon D, Lloja Lozano L, Carbajal Zuniga V (2004) Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 24(4): 323–327.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Suphiphat V, Morjaroen N, Pukboonme I, Ngunboonsri P, Lowhnoo T, Dhanamitta S (1993) The effect of pumpkin seeds snack on inhibitors and promoters of urolithiasis in Thai adolescents. J Med Assoc Thai 76(9): 487–493.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Suphakarn VS, Yarnnon C, Ngunboonsri P (1987) The effect of pumpkin seeds on oxalcrystalluria and urinary compositions of children in hyperendemic area. Am J Clin Nutr 45(1): 115–121.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhang X, Ouyang JZ, Zhang YS, Tayalla B, Zhou XC, Zhou SW (1994) Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study. J Tongji Med Univ 14(4): 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nkosi CZ, Opoku AR, Terblanche SE (2005) Effect of Pumpkin Seed (Cucurbita pepo)Protein Isolate on The Activity Levels of Certain Plasma Enzymes in CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Low-Protein Fed Rats. Phytother Res 19: 341–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fan YJ, Ohara A, Matsuhisa T (2004) Test for urokinase-type plasminogen activator inhibitor of edible plants in vitro. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 38(4): 252–256.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang P, et al (1999) Experimental study on pharmacological actions about analgesia, antiinflammation of Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Shizhen Med Mteria Med Res 10(8): 567.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Krishnamoorthi R, Gong YX, Richardson M (1990) A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. FEBS Lett 273(1–2): 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dannenhoffer JM, Suhr RC, Thompson GA (2001) Phloem-specific expression of the pumpkin fruit trypsin inhibitor. Planta 212(2): 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hernandez Ramirez BD; Guerra Modernell MJ (1997) Development and evaluation of a dietetic formula made of pumpkin, rice, chicken and vegetable oils for children with diarrhea. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 47(1): 57–61.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oboh G (2005) Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress. J Med Food 8(4): 560–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Food Science and Nutrition EngineeringChina Agriculture UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations